Vol. 33, No. 1 – Spring: Contents; Abstracts

Vol. 33, No. 2 – Summer: Contents; Abstracts

Vol. 33, No. 3 – Fall: Contents; Abstracts

Vol. 33, No. 4 – Winter: Contents; Abstracts

VOL. 33, No. 1 – Contents


Introduction: Why Confront Class?
LouAnn Wurst and Robert Fitts, 1

Internalizing Class in Historical Archaeology
LouAnn Wurst, 7

Race and the Genteel Consumer Class and African-American Consumption
Paul R. Mullins, 22

The Archaeology of Middle-Class Domesticity and Gentility in Victorian Brooklyn
Robert Fitts, 39

“Free From All Vicious Habits”: Archaeological Perspectives on Class Conflict and the Rhetoric of Temperance
Paul E. Reckner and Stephen A. Brighton, 63

Go gCuire Dia Rath Blarth Ort (God Grant that You Prosper and Flourish): Social and Economic Mobility Among the Irish in Nineteenth-Century New York
Heather Griggs, 87

Examine Gender, Class, and Ethnicity in 19th-Century New York City
Diana diZerega Wall, 102

“A Disregard of Every Sentiment of Humanity”: The Town Farm and Class Realignment in Nineteenth-Century Rural New England
James C. Garman and Paul A. Russo, 118

The Landscapes of Class Negotiation on Coffee Plantations in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. 1790-1850
James A. Delle, 136

Class Confrontations in Archaeology
Randall H. McGuire and Mark Walker, 159

Epilogue: Class Analysis and Historical Archaeology
Robert Paynter, 184

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VOL. 33, No. 1 – Article Abstracts

LouAnn Wurst

Internalizing Class in Historical Archaeology

ABSTRACT: Historical archaeologists have either ignored class or defined it as a category or objective entity. In this work, it is argued that viewing class as a formation provides a powerful tool for studying the past. Defining class in this way stems from a theory of internal relations that sees class as a relational, analytical concept that operates at more than one scale or level of abstraction. Two examples demonstrate that class dynamics in different social and historic contexts. This first focuses on class at the community level, while the second looks at the class structure within a single household. Only through the process of abstracting class in real historic contexts can we operationalize class as an analytical concept powerful enough to understand internal social relations.

Paul R. Mullins

Race and the Genteel Consumer: Class and African-American Consumption, 1850-1930

ABSTRACT: Between the Civil War and the 1920s, a consumer culture emerged which attempted to evade class tension by focusing on contrived racial differences. The vast majority of American-born whites and European immigrants alike embraced the illusion of a classless consumer culture in which opportunity was available to white citizens alone. African Americans were caricatured as being racially unsuited to those citizen privileges in consumption and labor space. Archaeological assemblages from Annapolis, Maryland demonstrate, however, that African-American consumers actively sought the opportunities consumer culture promised and articulated an anti-racist class struggle in consumer space.

Robert K. Fitts

The Archaeology of Middle-Class Domesticity and Gentility in Victorian Brooklyn

ABSTRACT: In 1995, John Milner Associates excavated three privies and four cisterns dating to the 1860s at the Atlantic Terminal Urban Renewal Area in the Fort Greene section of Brooklyn, New York. Residents associated with the deposits were members of the burgeoning white-collar middle class. Examinations of the recovered ceramic and glass vessels, as well as children’s toys and household furnishings, show that these middle class households used mater8ial culture to create what contemporaries referred to as a “genteel” lifestyle. By setting their tables with specific ceramic wares and vessels, these families both advertised their “respectability” to other families and taught their children the class-specific values needed to maintain their middle-class status. The analysis shows that each of the excavated households closely followed the contemporary advice literature on household furnishing and dining etiquette. Indeed, the similarities between the assemblages and conformity to the advice literature suggests that the desire to “keep up with the Jonses” and the corresponding insecurities commonly associated with the middle class during the 1950s and 1960s were firmly established one hundred years earlier.

Paul E. Reckner, Stephen A. Brighton

“Free From All Vicious Habits”: Archaeological Perspectives on Class Conflict and the Rhetoric of Temperance

ABSTRACT: American temperance organizations of the mid-19th century stressed total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco, attributing to these substances an array of physically and morally damaging effects. These reformers deployed a rhetoric which was deeply rooted in middle-class American ideology, focusing their efforts on freeing impoverished, working-class, and immigrant groups from the bonds of addiction, demanding nothing less than total abstinence. Yet many middle-class partakers continued to smoke and drink in “moderate” amounts. The temperance movement became a locus for the exercise of class-based social control and opposition. Cultural, religious, and political agendas also animated the temperance debate and informed the philosophies of reformist institutions. The responses of diverse social groups to temperance reform are explored through an analysis of period documents and archaeological material from New York City and Lowell, Massachusetts, in order to explore the interplay of class formation, cultural and “racial” conflict, and religious ideology underlying reformist social movements.

Heather J. Griggs

GO gCUIRE DIA RATH AGUS BLATH ORT (God Grant that You Prosper and Flourish): Social and Economic Mobility Among the Irish in Nineteenth-Century New York City

ABSTRACT: In the past, many historical archaeologists have focused on measuring differences in ethnicity and class in a variety of different contexts. Usually, these studies attempt to quantify differences between groups based on artifact groups that may display social or economic diversion in consumer behavior. The 1991 excavation and subsequent analysis of the Five Points Archaeological Project in New York City has presented an opportunity to view the archaeology of a neighborhood composed of diverse social and economic groups living in close quarters. This work is an exploration of ways in which the archaeological and historical records may disclose varying class and ethnic behaviors within a neighborhood that would be traditionally characterized as “working class.”

Diana diZerga Wall

Examining Gender, Class, and Ethnicity in Nineteenth-Century New York City

ABSTRACT: Ceramic vessels are used in a first step for comparing how working- and middle-class women constructed domesticity in 19th-century New York City. In addition to exploring some of the interpretive problems encountered in studying working-class families who lived in tenements, the analysis indicates that the women of the working class apparently did not emulate middle-class women when it came to choosing the dishes they used to set their tables.

James C. Garman, Paul A. Russo

“A Disregard of Every Sentiment of Humanity”: The Town Farm and Class Realignment in Nineteenth-Century Rural New England

ABSTRACT: The development of the town farm was an important landmark in the reshaping of rural classes in 19th-century New England. Town authorities viewed the local institution as a means of distinguishing “worthy poor” members of the working class from those deemed merely lazy and idle. This work considers the relationship between the Smithfield, Rhode Island Town Farm and Asylum (1834-1870) and both the inhabitants of the institution and the more prosperous citizens of Smithfield. Archaeological evidence from the site, especially the ceramic assemblage, has raised questions concerning the reshaping of values among rural elites in an industrializing community. The final blow to the institution, an inquiry into allegations of abuse and mistreatment of inmates, provides a lense through which larger issues surrounding social reform can be examined, based on Smithfield’s all-too-typical experience with poor relief.

James A. Delle

The Landscapes of Class Negotiation on Coffee Plantations in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica: 1790-1850

ABSTRACT: Analyzing the material elements of class negotiation should be a focus of historical archaeology. One of the most promising forms of material culture with which to conduct such analysis is landscape. To examine how landscapes shaped the negotiation of class relations in 19th century Jamaica, the material remains of three coffee plantations – Sherwood Forest, Clydesdale, and Chesterfield – are described and analyzed. The archaeological analysis of the landscapes of 19th century class negotiation can shed light on the historical development of capitalist social processes, many of which still impact the negotiation of class relations today.

Randall H. McGuire, Mark Walker

Class Confrontations in Archaeology

ABSTRACT: Archaeologists not only live class they also study it. Archaeology as a discipline serves class interests and as a profession, or occupation, it has its own class structure. The discipline of archaeology has, since its founding, primarily served middle-class interests. It has formed part of the symbolic capital that has been necessary for membership in the middle class during this century. Archaeology has traditionally reproduced itself in the university using a guild model of apprenticeship and master. In both the academy and in cultural resource management today this guild model has become an ideology that obscures the existence of an archaeological proletariat of teaching assistants, adjuncts, and field techs. The ideology justifies denying these archaeologists respect, a living wage, job security, and benefits. A seven step program is proposed to rectify the structural class inequalities of modern archaeology.

Robert Paynter

Epilogue: Class Analysis and Historical Archaeology

ABSTRACT: Class analysis draws on the theoretical traditions of Marx and Weber to understand the densely structured, dynamic social relations of the post-Columbian world. Class analyses involves theoretical and empirical studies of class process, class structure, and class formation. The papers in this volume consider these various aspects of class analysis, particularly illuminating the intersections of race, class, and gender, and the ongoing formation of the United States’ middle class.

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VOL. 33, No. 2 – Contents


John L. Cotter Award In Historical Archaeology, 1

A Conversation with John L. Cotter
Daniel G. Roberts, 6


Historical Archaeology in the Next Millemium: A Forum
Donald L. Hardesty, 51

Historical Archaeology in the Next Mellenium: A View from CRM
Marlesa A. Gray, 59

Comments on “Historical Archaeology in the Next Millenium: A Forum”
William B. Lees, 63

Comments on “Historical Archaeology in the Next Millenium: A Forum”
Robert L. Schuyler, 66

Response to Comments by Gray, Lees, and Schuyler
Donald L. Hardesty, 71


States, Traders, and Colonists: Historical Archaeology in Zimbabwe
Innocent Pikarayi and Gilbert Pwiti, 73

Interpreting Archaeological Data Through Correspondence Analysis
Robert Alan Clouse, 90

Tarapaya: An Elite Spanish Residence near Colonial Potosi in Comparative Perspective
Mary Van Buren, 108


Edited By Vergil E. Noble

Nelson: Gender in Archaeology: Analyzing Power and Prestige
Suzanne Spencer-Wood, 123

Gilchrist: Gender and Material Culture: The Archaeology of Religious Women
Stephanie Klein, 126

Cabak and Inkot: Old Farm, New Farm: An Archaeology of Rural Modernization in the Atken Plateau
David W. Babson, 127

Hunter and Ralston: Archaeological Resource Management in the UK: An Introduction
John Carmani, 129

Carrillo: Hispanic New Mexico Pottery: Evidence of Craft Specialization, 1790-1890
Peter L. Steere, 131

Brain: Contributions to the Historical Archaeology of European Exploration and Colonization in North America
Shannon Dawdy, 132

Anderson, Carelli, and Ersgard: Visions of the Past: Trends and Traditions in Swedish Medieval Archaeology
Paul Courtney, 134

Haecker and Mauck: On the Prairie of Palo Alto: Historical Archaeology of the U.S.-Mexican War Battlefield
Douglas Scott, 136

Hardesty: The Archaeology of the Donner Party
Rebecca Allen, 137

Burton: Three Farewells to Manzanar: The Archeology of Manzanar National Historic Stie, California
Roberta S. Greenwood, 139

Lanier and Herman: Everyday Architecture of the Mid-Atlantic: Looking at Buildings and Landscapes
Peter B. Mires, 141

Delagado: British Museum Encyclopaedia of Underwater and Maritime Archeology
Ian Stuart, 143

Kent: Birchbark Canoes of the Fur Trade
Duglas A. Birk, 145

Carnes-McNaughton: The Mountain Potters of Buncombe County, North Carolina
Bonnie L. Gums, 147

Shackel: Domestic Responses to Ninteenth-Century Industrialization: Archeology of Park Building 48, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
Roberta A. Clouse, 149

Meissner: The Alamo Restoration and Conservation Project: Excavations at the South Transept
John A. Peterson, 151

Lewis Berger & Associates: Delaware and Raitan Canal (Site 28ME108), Historical and Archaeological Studies and Historic Sites
Richard F. Veit, Jr., 152

Sussman: Mocha, Banded, Cat’s Eye, and Other Factory-Made Slipware
Amy L. Young, 154

Orser: Images of teh Recent Past: Readings in Historical Archaeology
E. F. Athanassopoulos, 156

Layton: The Voyage of the Frolic: New England Merchants and the Opeum Trade
Lawrence E. Babits, 159

Louis Berger & Associates: Analytical Coding System for Historic Period Artifacts
Leslie C. Stewart-Abernathy, 160

Bailey: Pattern Dates for British Ordinance Small Arms, 1718-1783
Lynn L. M. Evans, 161

Smith: Whom We Would Never More See: History and Archaeology Recover the Lives and Deaths of African American Civil War Soldiers on Folly Island, South Carolina
Lawrence E. Babits, 162

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VOL. 33, No. 2 – Article Abstracts

Donald L. Hardestry

Historical Archaeology in the Next Millenium: A Forum

ABSTRACT: Historical archaeologists should focus their future research efforts on a set of central problems surrounding the emergence of the modern world. Such problems include environmental change, technological change, ethnogenesis, and distinctive patterns of social interaction. Professionalism is an additional issue discussed.

Innocent Pikarayi, Gilbert Pwiti

States, Traders, and Colonists: Historical Archaeology in Zimbabwe


Robert Alan Clouse

Interpreting Archaeological Data Through Correspondence Analysis

ABSTRACT: Correspondence Analysis, a multivariate analytical technique, provides a valuable tool for archaeological analysis. Correspondence Analysis is here applied to data recovered from 27 seasons of extensive archaeological excavations at Fort Smelling, Minnesota, a frontier military post constructed in 1820. The artifact distributions and rich documentary record delineate patterns in the functional, social, and economic meaning assigned to different areas of the fort. Through the use of a model of military site characteristics, which served as a set of testable hypotheses, Correspondence Analysis results helped define functional distinctions within the military complex as elements of the social structure of the setting and enhance the anthropological understanding of economic and social status differentiation in 19th century military posts. The results show that Correspondence Analysis’ unique manner of display of data tables can serve as a heuristic device that can assist archaeologists to focus and refine research efforts.

Mary Van Buren

Tarapaya: An Elite Spanish Residence near Colonial Potosi in Comparative Perspective

ABSTRACT: Research at a variety of Spanish colonial settlements in the circum-Caribbean region (Deagan 1983, 1988; Ewen 1991) has revealed consistent patterns in the types and proportions of indigenous and European artifacts in domestic assemblages. These results have suggested that acculturative processes influenced largely by gender were the standard adaptive response throughout the Spanish colonial world. Excavations at colonial sites in Peru by Rice and Smith (Rice and Smith 1989; Smith 1991, 1997) and in Bolivia by the author have yielded assemblages, however, which are differently structured and include much larger proportions of locally produced goods, including a wide variety of ceramics. These findings indicate that there were regional differences in the degree to which colonists incorporated indigenous technology into their domestic activities, a divergence that was influenced largely by local geographic and historical conditions.

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VOL. 33, No. 3 – Contents


Martha A. Zierden and Bernard L. Herman, 1

The Metropolis and the Backcountry: the Making of a Colonial Landscape on the South Carolina Frontier
Kenneth E. Lewis, 3

Gentility and Material Culture on the Carolina Frontier
David Colin Crass, Bruce R. Penner and Tammy R. Forehand, 14

“An Idea of Grandeur:” Furnishing the Classical Interior in Charleston, 1815-1840
Maurie D. McInnis, 32

“After the Chinese Taste:” Chinese Export Porcelain and Chinoisene Decoration m Eighteenth-Century Charleston
Robert A. Leath, 48

Pottery, Intercolonial Trade, and Revolution: Domestic Earthenwares and the Development of an American Social Identity
Carl Steen, 62

A Trans-Atlantic Merchant’s House in Charleston: Archaeological Exploration of Refinement and Subsistence in an Urban Setting
Martha A. Zierden, 73

Slave and Servant Housing in Charleston, 1770-1820
Bernard L. Herman, 88

Backcountry and Lowcountry: Perspectives on Charleston in the Context of Trans-Atlantic Culture, 1700-1850
Carter L. Hudgins, 102

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VOL. 33, No. 3 – Article Abstracts

Kenneth E. Lewis

The Metropolis and the Backcountry: The Making of a Colonial Landscape on the South Carolina Frontier

ABSTRACT: The colonial settlement of South Carolina in the 18th century resulted in the emergence of two largely separate economies, the organization of which gave rise to distinctive frontier landscapes. The commercial rice economy of the Lowcountry was characterized by dispersed plantation production facilitated by riverine transportation. The urban functions of this largely rural landscape were centered on entrepot of Charleston, a city whose size and material wealth reflected the region’s commercial success. The Backcountry initially lacked access to the entrepot’s urban and export markets and its regional isolation fostered insular economic institutions dispersed among smaller nucleated settlements linked by overland routes. Commercial investment by Charleston interests eventually established the infrastructure of specialized production in the Backcountry and incorporated its resources in the larger export economy. The settlement system that emerged in the interior reflected these changes, but did not emulate the Lowcountry. Rather, it bore the imprint of the frontier landscape, components of which merely acquired new roles as regional nodes in South Carolina’s expanding economy, the focus of which remained the older entrepot that emerged as the South’s major port in the postfrontier period.

David Colin Crass, Bruce R. Penner, Tammy R. Forehand

Gentility and Material Culture on the Carolina Frontier

ABSTRACT: Both travelers’ accounts and historiographic portrayals of the colonial southern Backcountly emphasize the paucity of material culture and the lack of refined manners of the inhabitants. Recent research at the South Carolina frontier settlement of New Windsor Township demonstrates that this stereotypical view of backsettlers is false. Archaeological material culture, probate inventory data, and contemporary letters strongly indicate that frontier settlers not only bought high-status goods associated with refinement and gentility, but they also understood the behavioral patterns associated with them. This new perspective suggests that gentility often associated with 19th-century antebellum cotton planters actually had roots in the early colonial history of the frontier. More importantly, gentility contained and directed relationships in the Backcountry in ways reminiscent of Lowcountry society.

Maurice D. McInnis

“An Idea of Grandeur”: Furnishing the Classical Interior in Charleston, 1815-1840

ABSTRACT: To understand the information received from recovered archaeological material and what it reveals about the spread of refinement in 19th-century America, it is important to place it within the broader context of its original setting. This work draws upon probate inventories and surviving material artifacts, such as homes, furniture and decorative arts, to reconstruct the upperclass interior in Charleston, South Carolina, in the early antebellum period and illustrate the unique taste demonstrated by antebellum Charlestonians. As the lines that separated upper from middle class were becoming increasingly blurred, elite Charlestonians asserted cultural authority by maintaining an allegiance to the ideal of the English landed gentry. They emphasized their inheritance of an aristocratic order and constructed a material world that sought to identify themselves with European taste and culture. They traveled extensively in Europe acquiring art and objects with which they could ornament their homes and express their allegiance with European and classical culture, their liberal education, and, most importantly, their refined manners and taste.

Robert A. Leath

“After the Chinese Taste”: Chinese Export Porcelain and Chinoiserie Design in Eighteenth Century Charleston

ABSTRACT: Chinese export porcelain is one of the most commonly found ceramics in the Charleston area, constituting as much as 24% of the overall ceramic assemblage at many archaeological sites. Chinese porcelain was but one pan, however, of a broader stylistic language known as Chinoiserie in the 18th century. As international trade expanded, the complete range of Asian export luxury goods silks, Indian cotton textiles, Chinese lacquer and hardwood furniture, Chinese wallpaper, and reverse paintings on glass popular throughout the European world. The European enthusiasm for Asian export goods inspired western designers both technologically the invention of porcelain stylistically, as they combined Asian and European motifs in whimsical, Chinese-inspired designs for architecture and interior decoration. The more ephemeral objects, such as textiles and wallpaper, rarely survive in the archaeological record, although their presence can be established in period newspaper advertisements and probate inventories. As one of the wealthiest cities and most active trading centers in 18th-century North America Charleston, South Carolina, provides rich documentation for the presence of Asian export luxury goods and Chinese-inspired designs in the American colonies. By importing these goods and ordering locally crafted objects in the Chinese taste, Charleston’s colonial gentry demonstrated their ability to emulate their European counterparts and adapt the latest European fashion to their own domestic interiors.

Carl Steen

Pottery, Intercolonial Trade, and Revolution: Domestic Earthenwares and the Development of an American Social Identity

ABSTRACT: The American colonists were a discontented lot from the beginning. Some were fleeing religious persecution, while others sought the to their options in the homeland. When they arrived in North America many headed for the frontier, but many also settled in cities that served as collection points and shipping centers for a network of trade that extended far into the heartland. During the 18th century, manufacturing centers developed to process the skins, fibers, and minerals gathered in the interior. Colonists north and south, even though they faced different experiences, shared challenges that set them increasingly apart from their ancestral homelands. As a result, a unique social identity was being forged. The vastness of the land caused long-distance communications, facilitated by trade, to be the bond for social cohesion for both people on the frontier and people in the coastal cities. In the days before electronic communication, shipping was the fastest and most reliable medium for communication and trade between the major population centers. Although other manufactured goods, like textiles, were more important in economic terms, the trade of domestically-produced earthenwares, easily visible in the archaeological record, serves as mute testimony to the development of a unique social identity. and the formation of this independent nation.

Martha Zierden

A Trans-Atlantic Merchant’s House in Charleston: Archaeological Exploration of Refinement and Subsistence in an Urban Setting

ABSTRACT: A century after its founding in 1670, Charleston, South Carolina, was the wealthiest city per capita in the British colonies. The city’s richest merchants and planters proclaimed their achieved status through material possessions as well as actions. Archaeological research in Charleston has explored the homes of several elite community members, most recently that of Nathaniel Russell (ca.1808). Data from Russell’s house, supplemented with those from 20 other urban sites, are used to explore the issues of refinement, landscape development, and ethnic relations in an urban setting.

Bernard L. Herman

Slave and Servant Housing in Charleston, 1770-1820

ABSTRACT: Studies of Charleston, South Carolina, architecture and archaeology tend to focus on the artifacts and landscapes of the city’s white populace. This essay builds on the growing wealth of archaeologically recovered African-American material culture and initiates a discussion on Charleston’s slave quarters and their settings.

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VOL. 33, No. 4 – Contents


MEMORIAL. JOHN L. COTTER, 1911-1999, 6


Rural Modernization During the Recent Past: Farmstead Archaeology in the Aiken Plateau
Melanie A. Cabak, Mark D. Groover and Mary M. Inkrot, 19

Production of Animal Commodities at Plum Grove, Iowa City
William E. Whittaker, 44

Portuguese Tin-glazed Earthenware in Seventeenth-Century New England: A Preliminary Study
Steven R. Pendery, 58


Edited By Vergil E. Noble, 78

Cusick: Studies in Culture Contact: Interaction, Culture Change, and Archaeology
Susan Dublin, 78

Babits and Van Tilburg: Maritime Archaeology: A Reader of Substantive and Theoretical Contributions

Sabloff: Conversations with Lew Binford: Drafting the New Archaeology
Melburn D. Thurman, 80

Handler and Gable: The New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at Colonial Williamsburg
Amber Bennett Moncure, 82

Davis, Livingood, Ward, and Steponitis: Excavating Occaneechi Town: Archaeology of an Eighteenth-Century Indian Village in North Carolina
Charles R. Ewen, 83

Crass, Smith, Zierden, and Brooks: The Southern Backcountry: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Frontier Communities
Audrey L. Horning, 84

King and Ubelaker: Living and Dying on the I 7th Century Patuxent Frontier
Harold Mytum, 86

Crass, Penner, Forehand, Huffman, Potter, and Potter: Excavations at New Windsor Township, South Carolina
Martha A. Zierden, 87

Grumet:Historic Contact: Indian People and Colonists in Today’s Northeastern United States in the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries
Bernard Allaire, 88

Bound: The Archaeology of Ships of War
Antony Firth, 89

Ewins: “Supplying the Present Wants of Our Yankee Cousins”: Staffordshire Ceramics and the American Market 1775-1880
Alasdair M. Brooks, 90

Freestone and Gaimster: Pottery in the Making: Ceramic Traditions
Charles C. Kolb, 91

Redknap: Artefacts from Wrecks: Dated Assemblages from the Late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution
Christopher F. Amer, 92

Ahlstrom: Looking for Leads: Shipwrecks of the Past Revealed by Contemporary Documents and the Archaeological Record
D. H. Keith, 94

Lawrence and Staniforth: The Archaeology of Whaling in Southern Australia and New Zealand
Coral M. Magnuson, 95

Gaimster and Stamper: The Age of Transition: The Archaeology of English Culture 1400-1600
William O. Frazer, 96

Adams and McMurry: Exploring Everyday Landscapes: Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, Vll
Donald W. Linebaugh, 97

Crowell: Archaeology and the Capitalist World System: A Study ,from Russian America
Glenn J. Farris, 99

Masberger: Early Industrialized Pottery Production in Illinois: Archaeological Investigations at the White and Company’s Gooselake Stoneware Manufactury and Tile Works Rural Grundy County, Illinois
Peter Bleed, 100

Walker: Archaeology at the Fort Laramie Quartermaster Dump Area, 1994-1996
Terry A. Del Bene, 101

Adams, Ross, Krause, and Spenneman: The Japanese Airbase on Taroa Island, Republic of the Marshall 1937-45: An Evaluation of the World War II Remains
Jack C. Hudson, 103

Harris: Bermuda Forts, 1612-1957
Todd Ahlman, 104

Delgado: Made for the Ice: A Report on the Wreck of the Hudson ‘s Bay Company Ship BAYMAUD, ex-Polarskibet MAUD
C. Patrick Labadie, 105

Marc: The Underwater Heritage of Friendly Cove
C. Patrick Labadie, 106

Schmidt: Iron Technology in East Africa
Detlef Gronenborn, 108

Haycox, Burnett, and Liburd: Enlightenment and Exploration in the North Pacific c, 1741-1805
William H. Adams, 109

Maarleveld: Archaeological Heritage Management in Dutch Waters: Exploratory Studies
John R. Halsey, 110

Worth: The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida. Volume 1: Assimilation and The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida. Volume 2: Resistance and Destruction
Jefferey M. Mitchem, 112


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VOL. 33, No. 4 – Article Abstracts

Melanie A. Cabak, Mark D. Groover, Mary M. Inkrot

Rural Modernization During the Recent Past: Farmstead Archaeology in the Aiken Plateau

Modernization theory is studied as a vehicle for interpreting archaeological resources of the recent past. During the period when many farmers were adopting mechanized equipment and new technologies for the home, the federal government purchased property from landowners in the Aiken Plateau Of South Carolina to create a nuclear research facility. As a consequence, all farms in the study area were abandoned in 1951. This event created an opportunity for studying rural lifeways during a period when modernization was restructuring agriculture in North America. Analysis of the built environment in the study area indicates that very few of the dwellings resembled the modern-styled homes that were emerging across the nation by 1950. Despite the paucity of evidence for modern farm dwellings, archaeological analyses indicate that most rural households were purchasing numerous commercially produced goods. contrasting information thus illustrates the often uneven character of culture change and historical process.

William E. Whitaker

Production of Animal Commodities at Plum Grove, Iowa City

To understand how people living in rural areas articulated with larger systems of commodities networks it is important to study them not just as consumers of goods, but also as producers of commodities. Based on historical and ethnohistorical comparisons, a late-19th-century feature at the Plum Grove site in Johnson county, low a, displays archaeological evidence of the production of animals for market sale despite a lack of historical records from this time period. The nature of this evidence is discussed, as is its significance in understanding Plum Grove’s articulation with macro-level economic networks.

Steven R. Pendery

Portuguese Tin-glazed Earthenware in Seventeenth-Century New England: A Preliminary Study

An examination of documentary and archaeological evidence for the distribution and use of Portuguese tin-glazed earthenware in 17th-century New England. This type of ware is commonly found in excavations but its significance has been overlooked. Its presence marks a period of intensified Anglo-Portuguese trade in which New England merchants played an important role. Insular and mainland Portugal imported New England codfish and wood products and exported wine, fruit, salt, oil, and tin-glazed earthenware. New England sites contribute new information to refine the dating and Classification of these ceramics, consisting mainly of plates and bowls. Their disappearance from New England by the late 17th century may have been due to enforcement of the Navigation Acts and ascent of the British ceramic industry. Typologies for the for forms and decoration of these 17th century tin-glazed earthenwares are presented.