The Society for Historical Archaeology Publications Style Guide

For Authors

Revised SHA Springer Style Guide Oct 2016
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Major changes incorporated into this version of the Society for Historical Archaeology Style Guide include:

  • Electronic submission of manuscript drafts.
  • Revised standards and procedures for figures.
  • Acceptance of electronic signatures on copyrights.
  • Citation of electronic media updates.
  • Referencing of articles cited in thematic issues of Historical Archaeology.

Authors are expected to submit manuscripts for publication consideration in accordance with the Society for Historical Archaeology Style Guide––draft manuscripts that do not follow the guide will be returned for revison prior to review. Authors are instructed to read carefully (and check off) the Overall Requirements and Manuscript Specifications prior to submission.


I. Editorial Policy

A. Introduction

This Style Guide is designed primarily for manuscripts submitted to the journal Historical Archaeology but also pertains to all printed and electronic publications of the society. All copy using the name, logo, and other copyright material owned by the Society for Historical Archaeology will be processed through and approved by a society editor.

B. Policies

The Society for Historical Archaeology publishes the journal Historical Archaeology quarterly. The Society for Historical Archaeology (SHA) also issues special publications on historical archaeology, and also publishes Technical Briefs in Historical Archaeology and Historical Archaeology Reviews electronically on the SHA website. Subscription to the journal is by membership in the society. Original papers published in the journal promote research in historical archaeology and archaeological method and theory as practiced worldwide. Reviews and memorials are solicited by the respective editors for those topics. The editors encourage special-topics issues, collected papers, and thematic issues. Please note the following important provisos:

  1. Manuscripts must follow the journal’s style provisions, or they may be returned to authors for reformatting prior to peer review. Editors encourage authors to write in active-voice sentences. For matters of style not included here, authors should consult the 11th edition (2003) of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary and the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2001). Also see page 6 for additional sources.
  2. Editors reserve the right to reject (with or without review by referees) or return for revision any submission that addresses a subject inappropriate for the scope of the journal, or that is of poor quality or excessive length.
  3. All artwork and text remains the property of the Society for Historical Archaeology. No text copy, disks, or artwork for published papers will be returned to authors.
  4. Authors, and not the Society for Historical Archaeology, are responsible for manuscript content, including accuracy of quotations and correct citation of all material.
  5. The journal conforms to the 1973 American Anthropological Association statement on gender terms, which discourages the use of gender language (his, her, man, etc.) in non-sex-specific contexts. Use more neutral words (they, one, humans, researchers, etc.).

II. Publication Process

A. Manuscript Submission

  1. Submit manuscripts solely to Historical Archaeology and not simultaneously to other journals.
  2. Submit manuscripts to the journal’s online system:
  3. Follow the proper format as described in this guide when preparing and submitting manuscripts. Please do not try to format the manuscript to look like the journal.
  4. See section IV, B for manuscript requirements.
  5. Submit figures and artwork in electronic format.
  6. Proofread your files for unexpected omissions or problems prior to submission to SHA.
  7. Retain both an electronic and a hard copy identical to the submitted version.

B. Manuscript Review

The society’s journal editor will immediately acknowledge receipt of manuscripts. This acknowledgment does not imply acceptance of the manuscript for publication.

  1. Manuscripts will be judged on the accuracy of content, appropriateness for an international audience of historical archaeologists, and consistency with the research and ethical goals of the Society for Historical Archaeology.
  2. All manuscripts will be reviewed by a minimum of three peer referees. Peer review is handled by an associate editor. Reviewers are sought who have expertise in the geographical region, the thematic or research content, and the time period treated within the manuscript. Ideally, all manuscripts will be reviewed by persons who, at least in combination, possess all such expertise. Reviewers’ comments are requested with editorial guarantees of anonymity, although individual referees may, and often do, waive anonymity. All manuscript reviews by referees are open (the author’s name is not deleted from the manuscript).
  3. Editors make all final decisions pertaining to manuscripts. Acceptance may depend on the condition that revisions are made. If review remarks are such that substantial changes are necessary before a manuscript is acceptable for publication, the revised manuscript may be re-reviewed, preferably by the original readers, before it is finally accepted for publication.
  4. Rejection of a manuscript may be final or may be qualified with the possibility of reconsideration after revision and resubmission, with a new review process. Authors are strongly encouraged to make the suggested changes and resubmit the article rather than abandon the project.

C. Manuscript Acceptance

  1. Authors are notified as soon as reviewers’ evaluations have been received and a decision is made to accept or reject a manuscript.
  2. Following acceptance of a manuscript, authors will be required to respond to prepublication editorial queries or requests for additional information by the quickest means possible.
  3. Authors must obtain and submit to the journal editor written permission to publish original material (such as original photographs and drawings) protected by U.S. or international copyright laws, as well as personal communications. Authors are responsible for all fees required in securing permissions to publish these materials. Such written permission must include:
    • Statement describing the item being used
    • Signature and title of the person giving permission
    • Title of the article in which it will be used
    • Title of the specific publication in which the article is to be published
  4. Upon acceptance of a manuscript, the senior author will be requested to assign copyright privileges to the Society for Historical Archaeology. Unwillingness to assign such rights will result in the automatic rejection of the manuscript. This procedure is necessary so that the society can, under current copyright law, copyright each issue of Historical Archaeology or other publicationsof the Society for Historical Archaeology, as well as protect the authors’ rights. The society does not retain copyright for manuscripts that it does not publish. In such cases, both the manuscript and the copyright assignment form will be returned to the author. The author’s name, including those of book reviewers, as published in the journal will be made to conform to the signature on the copyright assignment form. Sign the copyright form exactly as you want your name to appear in the journal. Electronic signatures are accepted.

D. Page Proofs

  1. Posting of Proofs
    Page proofs of manuscripts in Adobe Acrobat pdf format will be emailed to authors. In the case of multiple authorship, senior authors (or their designee) are responsible for proofreading the text and making all corrections.
  2. Correcting Proofs
    Print out and mark proof sheets in red ink with standard proofreader’s marks, if possible, or use Adobe Acrobat PDF tags to note comments. See a recent copy of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary <> for examples of these. Authors may not rewrite text at this stage of publication. Essential new facts may be added, and typographical errors must be corrected. All changes by authors to the copy after submission and to page proofs are suggestions only, which may be disregarded by the editors. Except for printer errors, all changes in the proofs will be billed to the senior author(s) at current hourly printer rates.
  3. Returning Proofs
    The editor must receive corrected page proofs within 72 hours of the email notification of the posting of proofs, or corrections will be too late for consideration. Return page proofs directly to the journal editor by email or by using an overnight courier service. Do not use FAX service to send proof corrections. If the senior author will be unavailable, it is his or her responsibility to provide an alternate means for personal contact or a designated agent to be reached.

E. Reprints

  1. Complimentary Reprints
    Manuscripts are composed and available as proofs in Adobe Acrobat pdf format. After publication, an electronic version containing the final composed text will be made available to each author.
  2. Permission to Reprint
    Direct requests to the editor for permission to reprint articles from the Society for Historical Archaeology publications. The journal editor may grant permission to reprint entire articles or excerpts but will not grant permission to print abstracts or condensations other than those original to the article. Articles, book reviews, or excerpts thereof must be reprinted as published, except that typographical errors may be corrected. No changes favoring alternate spellings are permitted (“color” to “colour” or “archaeology” to “archeology”).

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III. Style Guide

A. General Information

This style guide supersedes earlier editions of this guide. SHA strongly recommends that new and experienced authors read this guide from beginning to end. Make a copy for easy reference.

In general, the journal requires a formal, professional style of writing without contractions and using gender-neutral words when possible. See section IV for specific manuscript requirements.

The style for the Society for Historical Archaeology publications differs significantly from that of other professional archaeological journals due to the heavier historical focus of this journal. For example, the Chicago Manual of Style, chapters 16 and 17, and other published sources pertaining to references are significantly different from those used by anthropologists and archaeologists. In the event of conflicts between this style guide and other journals or style guides, please follow the directions provided here. Questions or comments pertaining to the “The Society for Historical Archaeology Publications Style Guide” should be referred to the journal editor at the address found on the inside front cover of the latest issue of Historical Archaeology .

B. Recommended Writing Handbooks and Dictionaries

For matters of spelling, grammar, and writing style not included here, authors should consult the following sources:

Brusaw, Charles T., Gerald J. Alred, and Walter E. Oliu
2003    Handbook of Technical Writing, 7th edition. St. Martin’s Press, Boston, MA.

1986    Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged: The Great Library of the English Language. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA. Also available at <>.
2003       Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. Merriam-Webster, Springfield, MA. Also available at <>.

Strunk, William, Jr., E. B. White, and Roger Angell
2000       Elements of Style: With Index,4th edition. Longman, New York, NY.

Turabian, Kate L.
1996       A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th rev. edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

University of Chicago Press
2003       Chicago Manual of Style,15th edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Questions answered at <>.


IV. Manuscript Specifications

A. Summary of Sections

A submitted manuscript (hard copy and electronic format) must include the sections listed below in the order that they are listed. The acknowledgments section is optional, and appendices are allowed but discouraged.

Manuscript, including

  • Cover page
  • Author name(s)
  • Title of article
  • Abstract of article
  • Body text with headings
  • Acknowledgments (optional)
  • References
  • Endnotes (optional)
  • Name and address block
  • Appendix (strongly discouraged and only when absolutely necessary)
  • Figure captions (optional if no figures)
  • Tables and Figures (optional)

B. Overall Requirements

For publication in Historical Archaeology or other publications of the Society for Historical Archaeology, please follow these instructions:

  • Do not format the text so that it looks like the journal. Minimize all formatting except for the requirements listed in this guide. Do not add section, page, or artificial line breaks. The compositor will convert your manuscript electronically, so additional formatting will be lost or be an obstruction to copyediting and layout.
  • The manuscript must be double-spaced with a 1 in. margin on all sides. Include page numbers (center, bottom) on your manuscript. Do not justify the righthand margin. Only tables are single spaced.
  • Use normal style and a standard font throughout; Times New Roman 12-point is preferable. If you are familiar with the style commands in your word-processing software, please use “normal”style exclusively. You may use italics (or underlining) and “all caps” when specified in this guide. Do not use, for example, superscript with numbers (use 18th, not 18th), bold, small caps, or different sizes of fonts. You may have to override the automatic formatting in your software.
  • Use one space between all sentences. Colons will also be followed by one space, except in reference citations where there are no following spaces (1989:102–103). Please do not use a universal search function to change spacing, which can result in errors.
  • Indent first lines of all paragraphs 0.5 in. Use a paragraph-formatting command to indent 0.5 in. A paragraph indent is not the same as five spaces on the space bar or manually tabbing 0.5 in. on each paragraph. Do not use tabs except when formatting tables or in the reference list. No extra spacing is needed between paragraphs.
  • Use American spelling for any words in English but use appropriate diacritical marks (ç ú Ø) and italics for words in other languages.
  • Use a comma in a series of three or more items (explorers, settlers, and natives) and place all commas and periods inside of the final quotation marks. (He said, “Let’s go.”) (The whole effect, including the “landscape,” was horrible.)
  • Use formal, professional language. Exclude profanity and contractions (can’t, won’t, it’s, you’re, hasn’t, etc.) from your manuscript. Limited use of personal pronouns, referring to the author or authors, is allowed. Please avoid using “we” without providing a clear antecedent (archaeologists, team members, etc.). Use gender-neutral words as much as possible; “he” is not always the default pronoun. Write in the present tense. See style sources in section III above for assistance with writing style or grammar.
  • Check references for completeness. In general, answer the question, “how could this reference be found?” Use this manual for guidance. Do not assume the reader has the knowledge or that information is obvious. Editors can remove redundant or extra information if needed. Do not forget to include city/state or city/province or city/country (regardless of the familiarity of the city), location of repositories or sponsoring agencies, full names of authors, dates of publication, etc. Avoid using authors’ initials (unless author prefers this) or n.d. for “no date” (make an educated guess). See sections VI, VII for reference guidelines.
  • Crosscheck each reference, table, and figure in the text. Be sure there is a one-to-one correspondence to the actual tables and text references; to the actual figures, the figure captions, and the text references; and to the reference list and text references. Most manuscript errors occur here because authors add and delete references, tables, and figures during the writing and editing process.

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C. Section Specifications

  1. Cover Page
    The cover page provides editors with the needed information to contact the authors with questions about the manuscript. If you cannot be contacted, publication of your manuscript may be delayed by as much as two issues or even ultimately rejected. Be sure that all the information is up to date. If you are going to be out of the country, on sabbatical, in the field, etc., provide an alternative address and contact information. If you use a post-office box, you must also provide an address that can be used for courier services. Please include the following for all authors:

    • Author name(s)
    • Address(es)
    • Work and home telephone numbers
    • Email address
  2. Author Name(s)
    This begins the page following the cover page. Place author name(s) flush left in upper- and lowercase letters, exactly as signed on the copyright release form. If a name has unusual capitalization or spacing (Mac, De, Van, etc.), be sure that these items are clearly and correctly indicated. For a coauthored or multi-authored article, list authors on separate lines with no extra punctuation in the order of seniority. Manuscript authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the concept, design, execution, or interpretation of the research study. Other individuals who have contributed to the study should be named in the acknowledgments section but not identified as authors.
  3. Title
    Place the title of the article flush left, in upper- and lowercase letters with all major words capitalized. Keep the title short but meaningful.
  4. Abstract
    Place the heading “ABSTRACT,” in uppercase letters, flush left. The text of the abstract is also flush left in regular type with no paragraph indent. Do not exceed 150 words. The abstract should summarize the contents, significance, and conclusions of the article. It does not serve as an introduction to the article. Write in the present tense and avoid hackneyed phrases such as “this article will” or “this chapter will attempt to.” The abstract should be the last thing written.
  5. Main Text with Headings
    As introductory, main text, discussion, and conclusion sections are added to the manuscript, organize the headings as follows: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary. Secondary and other levels should only be added when more than one is needed. All headings are flush left, with an extra blank line before and after. Headings should be short and descriptive and differentiated as follows:

    1. Primary Headings—normal text with initial capital letters for all major words (excluding prepositions, articles, and short conjunctions).
    2. Secondary Headings— italicized with initial capital letters for all major words.
    3. Tertiary Headings— underlined with initial capital letters for all major words (this is the only place in your manuscript where underlining will be used).
    4. d. QUATERNARY HEADINGS—all capital letters; use is strongly discouraged.
  6. Acknowledgments
    Place the heading “Acknowledgments” flush left. The use of the acknowledgments section is optional, and use of personal pronouns is appropriate. Avoid the use of academic titles.
  7. References
    Place the heading “References” flush left. Double-space all entries and follow the instructions given in the Sample References, section VII. References have two parts: (1) author/editor names and (2) date/publication information. The first part of a reference includes only the name of the author(s) or editor(s) in normal font, not all caps. If the manuscript has multiple references by exactly the same author or authors, do not repeat the names. The second part of the reference is the date of publication, which begins a new line. It is flush left like the name. After the date, insert a single space. The remainder of the entry (title, place of publication, etc.) follows as normal text without line breaks or indents or any other formatting. Remember to insert a blank line between the last line of a reference and the new author/editor name of the next.
  8. Endnotes
    Limited use of endnotes is permitted for technical details or parenthetical comments that would disrupt the article’s flow. Endnotes should be numbered sequentially and should be concise. If references are cited in the endnotes, they must be included in the manuscript references.
  9. Name-and-Address Block
    Place the author’s name-and-address block (also known as a signature block, biographical data, or biography) flush left, double-spaced, and in upper- and lowercase letters. Do not use position titles, academic degrees, and other honorifics. A separate name-and-address block is required for each author of a coauthored or multi-authored article.

    1. List authors in the order of seniority as given on the first page of the article.
    2. The name-and-address block consists of three or more lines: (1) author’s name; (2) departmental affiliation (if appropriate); (3) organizational name (if appropriate); (4) mailing address; and (5) city, state (or province and country), and the nine-digit ZIP code or postal code. Use postal state/province abbreviations for U.S. and Canadian addresses. If a post-office box is required, use the abbreviation “PO Box.” Spell out non-U.S. country names in upper- and lowercase letters.
  10. Figure Captions
    Type FIGURE in all capital letters. List the captions double-spaced and flush left. Start a new line for each caption. Write the figure number first, followed by a period. The caption itself appears as regular text. Use italics within the captions when referring to parts or areas of the figure: (a), (b), etc.
    Please note the following requirements:

    1. Cite all figures in the text and give all figures a caption. (See section VI for citation style.)
    2. Number all captions sequentially in Arabic numerals in the order cited in the text.
    3. Date and attribute all figures to a source in the captions, even if the source is “author”; captions for drawings (maps, schematics, charts, etc.) and photos must include a date along with the source: (Drawing by author, 1982.)


FIGURE 1. Detail of 1807 map of Boston. (Courtesy of the Harvard Map Collection, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.)

FIGURE 2. Faience ointment-jar forms (Brain 1979:35).

FIGURE 3. Beads and pendant from the cemetery: (a)gilded bead; (b) pendant; (c) faceted amber bead; and (df)plain drawn beads. (Photo by author, 2004.)

FIGURE 4. Left and bottom,thermometer backplates; upper right, balance scale weights. (Photo by author, 2004.)

FIGURE 5. Gunflints from the Smyth site. (Photo by Ned Johnston, 2003; courtesy of the London Historical Commission, London, Ontario.)

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D. Table and Figure Specifications

Only typed material that can be composed is to be named a table; if material is to be photographically reproduced, then it is a figure (see part 2 below, Original Figures). Before creating a table, decide if a table is called for. Keep short informal tables and lists within the regular paragraph structure. For example, for short descriptions: “The rim border on ceramic platters consists of three zones of designs (from top to bottom): (1) vertical lines, with thick dashes at the rim; (2) a wide, solid line placed parallel to the rim; and (3) a band of Style G panels.” Note that parentheses surround the imbedded numbers.

1. Tables
All tables will be grouped following the name-and-address block and before the figure captions. Unlike the body text, use single-spaced text for the table. This is the only exception to the double-spaced manuscript policy. Type TABLE in all capital letters, followed by the number. Number tables in Arabic numerals in the order they are cited. On the second line, also flush left and in capital letters, place a short title of no more than 60 characters. No periods follow the first two lines.


Please note the following requirements:

  1. Cite every table (and capitalize the reference) in the text. Examples: Glass comprised 34% (Table 1); As provided in Table 1.
  2. Do not submit oversized tables. Compose tables from typed text. Consider the physical size of the journal when preparing tables.
  3. Avoid using more than 10 columns. Tables with numerous columns often have to be placed sideways on the journal page, reduced in size, or placed on several pages.
  4. Set table columns with tabs. Avoid proprietary table software because all tables will eventually be set in pure text with only tabs.
  5. No vertical rules in tables. Provide one horizontal rule under the table’s columnar headings above the data. Give each column and row a brief heading, with initial capital letters on all major words.
  6. Format notes. Place notes, if used, below the table in the following order and style:

Note: General note pertaining to the whole table.
aSuperscript letters indicate notes within the table.
Source: Adams (1993:24).

2. Original Figures
All artwork becomes the property of the Society for Historical Archaeology following acceptance of the manuscript for publication. Original artwork accompanying a manuscript accepted for publication will not be returned upon publication. Electronic submission is encouraged in TIFF, JPEG, or EPS format. Photographs should be submitted in 300 dpi or higher resolution at 100% scaling. Color photographs may be submitted, and the electronic version of the article will be prepared in color. It is the author’s responsibility to determine whether color graphs and charts will reproduce legibly in black-and-white print format and to submit graphics that are legible in black-and-white print. Graphics may also be submitted as glossy black-and-white photographs with good clarity and contrast and images. If scans are provided, they should be of a professional quality at 600–1,200 dpi. (see details below). Unacceptable media include the following: screened (newspaper) or continuous-tone (gray value) computer-generated illustrations (they produce unacceptable reproductions due to a moiré pattern effect); artwork mounted on stiff backs; colored slides or photos; xerographic copies. Remember, for publication figures are reduced to a width of 2-1/2 or 5-1/2 in. (single or double column). Keep that in mind when considering quality of reproduction.

Submit the following with your manuscript:

  • Electronic media saved on previously unused CDs.
  • Electronic media titled as follows: AuthorNameFigureNumber, (i.e., JonesFigure1).
  • Any needed signed permissions. Original artwork from other copyrighted works or from specific collections cannot be published without initially placing copies of all requisite reproduction permissions on file with the editorial office.

Please note the following requirements:

  1. Do not include figure numbers, captions, and pure-text legends as an integral part of the image. Place such items in the figure caption (see section C. 9 above). When several items are shown in a single figure, each object is to be designated on the figure by a lowercase italicletter. The caption must include an explanation of and reference to each of the letters included in the figure.
  2. Cite every figure in the text, capitalize, and do not abbreviate as “Fig”; cite in parentheses as (Figure 1), (Figures lac, 2, 3), (Figure 5a, b), (Figures 5a, b, 6a), (Figures 1–5); or within text “as illustrated in Figure 2.” Do not use the redundant see, e.g., or other Latin terms when citing figures in the text. When citing a figure included in the manuscript plus a reference to another source, list the items in the order they are addressed within the sentence with a single space and no punctuation between references: (Figure 2) (Harrington 1962:22).
  3. Use professional, legible lettering. Small lettering and complex detail in figures will not reproduce clearly. Do not use typed or freehand lettering. Use sans serif lettering that is large enough and of a medium thickness to reproduce well even when reduced in size upon publication.
  4. Do not use neat lines, borders, or boxes around or within maps and artwork. A simple box may appear around map legends or other insets.
  5. Scale or north arrow: place any needed scale (in./cm, mi./m) or north arrow within the figure, not in the caption. Place the north arrow directly in the figure. In good cartographic style, the north arrow points to north (the N is at the point of the arrow not on it or below it) and is as simple as possible.
  6. Use professional-level scans for all electronic media images. Output specifications for suitable images include: halftone (grayscale) images saved at 100% size, 600 dpi, TIFF format and line art (bitmap) images saved at 100% size, 1,200 dpi, TIFF format. High-quality drawing and scanning software and scanners that are readily available for personal or office use are not always acceptable for print production. All letters, numbers, and lines must be crisp, solid, and black. Fuzzy, gray, or broken letters and numbers, as well as those composed of microsized dots, are unacceptable. Computer-assisted design (CAD) generated maps, drawings, and images (including graphs) with dot-pattern backgrounds are unacceptable.

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V. Format Specifications

A. Abbreviations

  1. Names of Districts or Countries contain no space between letters (DC, USA, UK).
  2. Abbreviating States: Abbreviate states only in tables, references, and the name-and-address block, and then use the capitalized, two-character style of the U.S. Postal Service (Alabama=AL, Alaska=AK, etc.).
  3. Acronyms and abbreviations traditionally written in all capital letters such as SHA, AAAS, or Texas A&M, contain neither space nor punctuation between letters. The traditional and required exceptions are U.S., A.D., B.C., Ph.D., and M.S.
  4. Measurements: metric terms (cm, m) are not followed by a period, but nonmetric abbreviations are followed by a period (ft., in.).
  5. Latin Abbreviations: only limited use allowed. Do not use abbreviated Latin terms such as e.g., i.e., ibid., op. cit., loc. cit., etc., for narrative text citations or references. The abbreviations f. and ff. and the word passim are not used as a substitution for accurate page references. Use of “circa” with dates is allowed, but abbreviate as ca., not c. (ca. 1650). The term “et al.” is allowed to substitute for authors’ names within text citations when there are three or more names (Johnson et al.).
  6. Number: Abbreviate “number” as “no.” when used with a specific Arabic numeral (Burial No. 7) and in table headings. Do not use the symbol #.

B. Accents and Diacritical Marks

All accents and diacritical marks for English and foreign-language words, proper names, place names, and titles of publications must be included and clearly marked when used in the text or cited in the references.

    • Ivor Noël Hume
    • Aleš Hrdlička
    • Mehmet Yaşar
    • İşcan
    • Teotihuacán
    • Erlenbaeh-Zürich
    • Revista de arqueología y etnología (title)
    • raison d’être
    • français
    • entrepôt

C. Capitalization

      1. In English, capitalize all proper names, taxonomic names for genera and higher ranks, names of specific archaeological sites (but not the word site), specific geographical areas, and specific titles of buildings or departments. Peoples’ titles are not capitalized unless the title precedes and is used as part of the name. Use lowercase for general geographic, directional, and generic division terms. For further guidelines on capitalization of nonarchaeological terms, see the Chicago Manual of Style, chapter 7.
      2. Check sources for correct capitalization of prefixes in front of names (van, von, de, etc.); some are capitalized, some are not. For example, American authors with compound surnames such as Van Laer, Van is generally capitalized whether or not another name precedes it (Van Laer, Arnold Van Laer); for names of Dutch authors, van and der are not capitalized when preceded by another name, but Van is capitalized when the surname is used alone (Adriaen van der Donck; Van der Donck; or in references, Van der Donck, Adriaen; Hans van Regteren Altena; Van Regteren Altena, Hans).

American Southwest, southwestern United States, southeastern plantations, Eastern Shore
Department of Archaeology, but archaeology department
English composition, archaeology, history
Federal-period architecture (but U.S. federal government)
Main Street, Spring Street, but Main and Spring streets
Maya Lowlands, the lowlands
Ohio River, but Ohio and Monongahela rivers, Lakes Superior and Michigan
President Clinton, American president Clinton, the president of the society
Raritan formation
Spanish colonial period, contact, precontact, postmedieval
Spanish majolica (Puebla Blue/White type)
Stadt Huys block, Yaughan Curriboo site; Zea mays, Dalton point; Level I, level or levels
The Society for Historical Archaeology, the society
Washington State, the state of Washington

D. Dates, Years, and Eras

      1. Dates
        Use scientific or military style for all dates. “He was born on 19 July 1889.” Actual quotations will retain their style.
      2. Decades
        Do not use apostrophes in decades (1860s and 1870s, not 1860’s and ’70’s).
      3. Inclusive Years
        Fully cite inclusive years using an en dash, not a hyphen (1774–1778); do not shorten the century (1774–78). Always use from with to when referring to a range of dates (from 1850 to 1860); do not combine words and symbols (from 1850–1860).
      4. Eras B.C. follows dates (2000 B.C.); A.D. precedes dates (A.D. 2000). There is no year 0. Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P. (before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C. (See below for use of B.P. in radiometric ages.) Abbreviate circa as ca. (ca. 1650).

E. Hyphenation

Hyphenation often changes over time, so it is best to consult Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary or the Chicago Manual of Style (2003:7.90) for hyphenation of nonarchaeological compound words. For example, many prefixes no longer call for hyphens (bi, co, inter, micro, macro, over, pre, post, pseudo, re, semi, sub, trans, un, under, etc.). If ambiguity is unlikely, and the guide does not require one, do not hyphenate.

      1. Adverbs/Adjectives
        Do not use a hyphen when an adverb ending in -ly is a modifier (greatly exaggerated outcome). If an adverb does not end in -ly (more finely detailed sherd, much loved pet), you may use a hyphen only to prevent ambiguity (late-blooming teenager, much-loved music). Generally, use a hyphen with compound using all, full, well, ill, better, best, little, lesser, least, high low, upper, lower, middle, mid (all-powerful leader, full-scale attack, ill-defined term, lesser-known individual, middle-class family) before a noun but only to prevent ambiguity after a noun (his family was middle class). Always check the dictionary for permanently combined forms or exceptions to the general rules (midlife crisis, midterm election, mid-Atlantic, transatlantic, Mideast).
      2. Associated or Compound Words
        Hyphenate compound words that are not permanent combinations (transfer-printed pearlware) or to make associations clear, if there is danger of misunderstanding (round-bodied clay vessels, but clay vessels that are round bodied). Many compounds hyphenated before a noun may not need a hyphen when following a noun (the decision-making body; she excelled at decision making).
      3. Colors and Numbers
        Hyphenate descriptive terms that include a preposition or conjuction before the noun (black-on-black pottery, black-and-white photograph), but not after the noun (the photo was black and white). Do not hyphenate a color preceded by the words light or dark: light blue stone, dark red glow. Hyphens may be used for blue-green algae but not for bluish green algae or coal black paint. Hyphens are omitted when using abbreviations or symbols as 8 × 10 in. photograph or 5 ft. high wall.
      4. Time Periods
        Hyphenate century when used as a compound adjective: 19th-century ceramics, early-20th-century ceramics, mid-16th century, but ceramics of the 19th century. With decades, use a hyphen with mid (mid-1950s) but not with early or late (early fifties, late 1920s).
      5. Ethnic/Cultural Subgroups
        Do not hyphenate American ethnic groupings, even when used as adjectives. For example, use Italian American foodways, not Italian-American foodways; African American colonoware, not African-American colonoware.

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F. Italics

      1. Foreign Phrases
        Do not italicize commonly used foreign phrases and words included in the main listing of Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition, including e.g., i.e., et al., per se, in situ, en masse, sans, a priori. Italicize other terms, including terminus post quem (beginning); terminus ante quem (end); words in native languages, such as mako sica (mako, land); and entries in Merriam-Webster’s “Foreign Words & Phrases” chapter.
      2. Names of Ships
        Italicize names of ships: whaler Alta California, British frigate HMS Orpheus, Union vessel USS Monitor.
      3. Biological Taxonomy
        Italicize the taxonomic genus, species, and variety of scientific names: humans (Homo sapiens sapiens), white oak (Quercus alba), but oak (Quercus sp.). Other taxa are not italicized.
      4. Titles
        Italics are reserved for published works only: periodicals, newspapers, books, proceedings and collections, motion pictures, and pamphlets. Dissertation titles are italicized only if they are published. Manuscripts, reports, lectures, papers read at meetings, or other unpublished works are not italicized. Titles of articles within journals are not italicized in references; they are placed in quotation marks when used in the narrative text. See the Chicago Manual of Style or other reference works when in doubt.
      5. Mathematical Variables
        Letters signifying mathematical variables are italicized: X (chi), p (probability), df (degrees of freedom).

G. Numbers

In general, Arabic numerals are to be used for all numbers 10 and above. Spell out zero through nine (three sites, 12 sites, ninth month, and 13th test pit. All numbers in aseries and all numbers within one sentence should agree in form. If one reference number within a sentence is 10 or above, the other numbers in the sentence should be in numeral form also (“The sample includes 4 pipestems, 32 redware sherds, 7 stoneware sherds, 9 bottle-glass shards, and 83 nails”). Use commas with Arabic numerals of 1,000 and above. Spell out any number that begins a sentence (One hundred visitors per day is not unusual) or is used in general expressions in narrative text (several hundred years; about one-half of the workers).

Always use numerals for

      1. Centuries
        Use 14th century, early 20th century, but spell out century numerals that begin a sentence or that appear in titles of manuscripts (“Replicating Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Ordnance”). In references format will agree with book or article titles as originally published. Do not use superscript in century designations, i.e., 14th century, not 14th century.
      2. Legal Land Descriptions(section,range, township)—Sec 12, R9W, T4S.
      3. MathematicalCopy—(in text) $6 million, (in tables)$6,000,000; n=9; significant at the .10 level; 20%–40%; 100°C (also see section B below).
      4. Measurements
        Use numerals for precise measurements like 3 ml, 0.4 mm, 4 cm; 0.25 in., 2 in., 5 ft.; 8-1/2 × 11 in.; 5 × 5 ft.; 1/2 mi., 0.5 mi., 50 mi.; 2 hours; 2,000 hours; 8 P.M.; 90° angle; 32°F, 650°C; 10.5°; or 10° 90’ N.
      5. Page Numbers—Seifert (1991:82–108); or “on page 5 of the article.” Rather than a hyphen, use an en dash, which means “up to and including,” and do not shorten the numbers for a range of pages: 121–128, not 121–28 or 121–8.
      6. Percentage—96.3%; the percentage sign is used only with Arabic numerals.
      7. References—1st edition.
      8. Series Titles45th Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. In references, however, format will agree with title as originally published.
      9. Tables
        Numerals are paired with symbols and abbreviations: 85%, 3 ft., No. 6 (not #6).

H. Quotations

      1. Direct Quotations
        Word-for-word quotations are set off by quotation marks. Quotations of fewer than three typed lines or less than two full sentences should be placed in the text, set off with quotation marks, followed by the citation in parentheses, and then punctuated. Quotations of three or more typed lines or two full sentences or more should be indented, double-spaced, and set off from the body of the text by an extra blank line before and after the quote; no quotation marks set off the block quote from the text. If quotations are contained within a block quote, use full quotation marks (“ ”), not single quotes (‘ ’).

        Author’s Comments
        Use brackets, not parentheses, to set off any of your own words within the quote that aid understanding or flow. (Parentheses are reserved for parenthetical material incorporated in the original quote and for citations.) Use brackets to enclose the phrase [emphasis added] to signify recent author-added emphasis and [emphasis in original] to indicate the emphasis was part of the original text. Use the word [sic] in quoted material sparingly to indicate errors in the original text (do not use [sic] when an error is obviously a minor typographical error or when archaic English is being quoted).

        As Sullivan (1978:184) stated, “archaeologists must develop a rigorous model that specifies how information about the past is transmitted to the present via material remains [emphasis added].”

        “The [wrestling] match was between a very famous man at that time, Joe Tumr [sic] & some man; nobody could beat him [emphasis in original]” (Schmidt 1989:132).

      2. Deleted Text
        Ellipses are used to indicate omitted material in a quotation. They are placed on the line as periods are, not suspended. Do not use software-generated ellipsis symbols. The three ellipsis dots have no spaces between dots. Asterisks should not be used in place of periods. Generally, ellipses are not used at the beginning of quoted material. A quotation should proceed from your text. See the Chicago Manual of Style, section 11.57 for details. Here are the types of ellipses:

        1. a. Three periods with spaces before and after are normally used within a sentence to indicate omitted material: “The system … supported these beliefs.”
        2. b. Four periods are used with the first one serving as a period (no space) when one or more sentences are deleted: “This work does nothing. … His view was similar.” Note that the next sentence after the four-dot ellipsis begins with a capital letter.

Appropriate punctuation such as (, … ) or (… : ) may proceed or follow ellipses but only to make the meaning clearer.

      1. Inscriptions and Mottoes
        Set inscriptions and mottoes off from the surrounding text and neither italicize nor set in quotation marks. Use a colon to initiate an inscription; provide periods for missing letters, brackets for assumed letters, and back slashes to separate original multiple lines of text. The use of uppercase and lowercase letters should reflect the original usage.

The label reads: First Class

The inscription on the crock reads: C CROL . . . \MANUF[ACTU]RER\N[e]w York..

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I. Scientific and Mathematical Copy

      1. Chemical Names
        Chemical symbols should be capitalized, followed with a subscript figure indicating number of atoms in a molecule (H2O); superscript the mass number in front (14C). Names of chemical compounds should be lowercase when written (carbon, oxygen). See the Chicago Manual of Style 8.158 and 15.70 for further discussion.
      2. Formulas, Equations, and Statistics
        1. Set an equation off from the text by placing it on a line of its own with space above and below.
        2. Italicize all mathematical variables (letters or other symbols). Certain symbols may be ambiguous to the editorial/printing offices. For example: the editors must differentiate the letter X from the variable (x), a multiplication symbol (×), or the Greek letter chi (Χ), all of which are set differently in print. When degrees of freedom or probability are relevant to statistical analysis, they should be typed following the equation.

        Results are statistically significant based on the chi-square test of association: X2=52.82, df 4, p <.05.

      3. Measurements
        1. Specific measurements should be in numerals and abbreviated: 4 cm; 2 in.; 5 ft., 8-1/2 × 11 in.; 5 × 5 ft.; 12 ac.; 0.5 mi.; 2 hours; 2,000 hours; 8 P.M.; 0.25 in.; 50 mi.; 90° angle; 32°F; 650°C; 10.5°, or 10° 90’ N. The metric unit liter is abbreviated L due to potential confusion with the Arabic numeral 1 (8 L, not 8 l). Abbreviations for metric terms (cm, m) are not followed by a period, but nonmetric abbreviations are followed by a period (ft., in.).
        2. Alphabetic abbreviations are not repeated with combined measures (5 × 5 ft.), but symbols are (15%–20%).
        3. Precede decimal numbers less than one with a zero (0.4 m, 0.9 mi.), except when by tradition it is otherwise, such as in statistical probability (p <.05) or firearms and ordnance (.22 cal. shell).
        4. Square measurements—To avoid confusing the reader, an excavation unit 5 m on each side will be written as “5 × 5 m” in the text (not as “5 m square”). A multiplication symbol is used, not the letter x. When expressing area, such as 500 square meters, place the exponent after the abbreviation (500 m2).
      4. Site numbers
        Site numbers, as well as site names, should be included when known. When trinomial-system site numbers are available, type U.S. numbers consistently according to the state’s conventions, or, if inconsistent, site numbers will be reformatted with capital letters for the county designation and without hyphens (36LY160). Type Canadian Borden numbers with one hyphen (DiQw-4).
      5. Radiometric Ages
        Radiocarbon age determinations are not dates; they represent a statistical probability of being within a specific range of dates. Only calendric and tree-ring dates are absolute. When radiocarbon ages are reported for the first time they are to follow the standardized format of the journals Radiocarbon and American Antiquity (57[4]:755–756). If the radiocarbon age being cited has been previously published elsewhere, citation of that reference (including page numbers) is adequate. In the first citation of a radiocarbon age, provide the radiocarbon age, date, sigma error, laboratory number, sample number, the material of the sample dated, whether the date has been corrected, and the bibliographic reference (if previously published). In subsequent citations, use the age alone. To present a series of radiocarbon ages and associated technical data in tabular form, consult the example given in American Antiquity (57[1]:67, table 2). More specifically, the uncalibrated radiocarbon age given in the first specific citation must be based on the 5,568-year half-life of 14C (divide ages based on the 5,730-year half-life by 1.03). The radiocarbon age is to be presented as years B.P. and not converted to calendric years B.C./A.D. The 1-sigma standard error provided by the laboratory should follow. Include the sample-identification and laboratory numbers, and what material was analyzed (sample of charred wood, walnut hulls, etc.). Finally, indicate whether the age has been corrected for isotopic fractionation (if the lab has provided sigma 13C value, then the date has been corrected).
        The age of UCR-2141 [Goleta rope fiber] was determined to be 120 ± 50 14C years B.P. ([L-303] Stuiver and Polach 1977:355–363); or 120 ± 50 B.P. (L-303; UCR-2141, rope fiber).
      6. Tree-ring Dates
        Tree-ring dates should be given as calendric dates (A.D. 1350; 280 B.C.; 200 B.C.–A.D. 100). Note the spelling of “tree-ring” as established by the profession.
      7. Munsell Soil-Color Designations
        Place a space between the hue designation and color code when using Munsell soil-color designations, i.e., 10YR 4/5.

J. Spelling

      1. Preferred Spelling
        American spelling will be used rather than British English or federal government spellings, except in direct quotation and titles of references. When alternate spellings exist for a word, use the version listed first in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. For words not appearing in this source, consult Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. The following is a partial list of preferred spellings:

        acknowledgments, not acknowledgements
        cannot, not can not
        catalog, not catalogue
        data (plural) = information; datum (singular) = bench mark
        database, not data base
        datable, not dateable
        disk, not disc
        email, not e-mail or E-mail
        focused, not focussed
        gauge, not gage
        gray, not grey
        hollowware, not holloware
        honor, not honour
        lifestyle or lifeways, not life-style or life-ways
        mindset, not mind set or mind-set
        modeled, not modelled
        percentage rather than percent is the usual form, but always % with Arabic numerals
        worldview, not world-view or world view
        sociocultural, socioeconomic, sociopolitical (no hyphen)
        totaled, not totalled
        usable, not useable
        x-ray (verb, adjective); X ray (noun)

      2. Problematical Words and Phrases
        Some troublesome words and phrases encountered in historical archaeology are listed here by the preferred spelling or form:

        1. an historic, an historical, an historian, not a historic—traditional use is preferred here.
        2. archaeology, not archeology—the spelling archeology is acceptable only in a direct quotation or in acknowledgments, references, or biographies when capitalized as part of a title or an organizational name (Midwest Archeological Center).
        3. ethnic groups—African American; African American ceramics (no hyphen); black American; white American (black or white not capped); European American, not Euro-American or Euroamerican; Métis; creole (not capped or italicized); Native American (the federal government prefers Native American but some tribes prefer American Indian, and First Nations is used in Canada); the plural for Native American tribal members will use a final s. Other is capped when used to refer to “one considered by members of a dominant group as alien, exotic, threatening, or inferior because of different racial, cultural, or sexual characteristics.” For example, “the ways of the Other would be considered inferior to dominant cultural patterns.”
        4. maker’s mark (one maker, one mark); maker’s marks (one maker, more than one mark); makers’ marks (more than one maker, more than one mark).
        5. unfamiliar (or foreign words) may be defined or explained using the format: machicolations,or arched overhangs; hornos arabes,or Moorish kilns; tinajas,or large fermentation jars. Italicize each use of foreign terms throughout the text; others may be italicized on first use.
        6. wares—whiteware, yellow ware, pearlware, flatware, hollowware, tableware, tea ware; tea and table wares.

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VI. Reference Citations in Text

A. General Instructions

      1. Authors’ surnames are spelled out in full, except “et al.” is used for junior authors’ names for publications with three or more authors.
      2. Agency names serving as the author are spelled out in full in the initial citation and may be abbreviated in subsequent sections if used frequently (usually determined as more than three names).
      3. Format
        1. Do not use a comma between the author’s name and the year. Do not place a space between the colon following the year of publication and the page numbers.
        2. Do not separate the name of the author from the parentheses containing the year or year and pages in text citations. For example: Rust (1976:12) said, “the survey was complete.” Not: Rust said, “the survey was complete” (1976:12).
      4. No extra words, like see, e.g., i.e., contra, sensu, ibid., op. cit., loc. cit., etc., for narrative text citations or references (Rust 1972) not (see Rust 1972) nor (i.e., Rust 1972).

B. Sample Citations

      1. One author, no page numbers—(Smith 1969); Smith (1969); or Smith’s (1969) discussion, not (see Smith 1969).
      2. Agency as author—Initial citation: (Philadelphia Registry of Deeds [PRD] 1680:1.6.170 [book. leaf. page]), subsequent citation of more than three: (PRD 1680:1.6.170). In the References section include any abbreviations used: Philadelphia Registry of Deeds (PRD).
      3. Two authors—(Little and Shackel 1992) or Little and Shackel (1992).
      4. Three or more authors—(Arnold et al. 1992) or Arnold et al. (1992). List all names in the References section.
      5. Three or more authors with the same senior author, more than one referenceList them chronologically in the text (Olin, Harbottle et al. 1978; Olin, Black et al. 1984); cite them in strict alphabetical order in the References. In the infrequent instances where the first several names of two or more multi-authored works are the same and the publications appeared in the same year, cite them alphabetically both in the text and in the References, as in the following example: (Arnold, Fleshman, Garrison et al. 1991; Arnold, Fleshman, Hill et al. 1991).
      6. Several different authors cited in one place—Use chronological, then alphabetical order: (McKee 1886; Colton 1959; Deetz and Dethlefsen 1965; Deetz 1967, 1973; Brown 1973; Hall 1973).
      7. Several references by the same author—Without pagination: (Hardesty 1985, 1988, 1991a, 1991b) or Hardesty (1985, 1988, 1991a, 1991b). With pagination: (South 1972:23,27, 1977:14–173, 1978a, 1978b) or South (1972:23,27, 1977:14–173, 1978a, 1978b).
      8. Two or more references by the same author or authors in the same year—Organize chronologically, then alphabetically by title in the References, and cite as (Barber 1907c; Kelso 1993a, 1993b, 1993c) or Barber (1907c) and Kelso (1993a, 1993b, 1993c).
      9. Two or more references by the same author or authors, both as author and as editor, in the same year—(Rose 1985a, 1985b) or Rose (1985a, 1985b) in the text, but list them separately in the References with the author citation (1985a) preceding the editor citation (1985b).
      10. Citation with pages, tables, or figures specified—Leave no space between colon and pagination and cite full page references: Archives Départmentales de la Gironde 1584:449–450; McKearin and McKearin 1948:plate 22; Hall 1969:184–197; Schuyler 1974:17,21; South 1977:chapter 4; Kehoe 1978:21,64, figures 5,12; Otto 1984:table 2; Adams and Boling 1989:82, table 4, figure 9a,b. When several categories are present, cite in the order of [volume,] pages or folios, chapters, tables, and figures.
      11. Book citation when the volume number is required for clarity—For the volume number use an Arabic numeral in brackets followed by a colon with no spaces: (Winsor 1881[1]:533; Historical Register 1930[2]:5; Garcia 1982[2]; Orser et al. 1987[1]:398–414, [3]:95–106).
      12. “In press” or missing date—Avoid using the term “in press” or “n.d.” (no date). Provide the firm, scheduled date of publication when available or use a bracketed date when no date is scheduled but general consensus exists for the estimated publication date.
      13. Electronic sources, found on the Internet (World Wide Web)—Text citations for electronic sites/pages are the same as other citations with the author and date: (Steen 1997) or Steen (1997). It is incumbent upon scholars referencing these sources to maintain a copy of the information as cited, treating these copies as personal papers because of the lack of ability to archive original electronic sources.
      14. Electronic personal communication (discussion lists, Usenet Group, Facebook, Twitter, and Email)—Use the author’s full name, date of communication, and “elec. comm.”: (Lester A. Ross 1997, elec. comm.) or Lester A. Ross (1997, elec. comm.). You must secure permission and provide the editors with written or electronic permission to cite these communications. Personal electronic communications are not listed in the References section. It is incumbent upon scholars referencing these sources to maintain a copy of the information as cited, treating these copies as personal papers because of the lack of ability to archive original electronic sources.
      15. Personal communication—Use the author’s full name, date of communication, and “pers. comm.”: (Alfred E. Dade 1987, pers. comm.) or Alfred E. Dade (1987, pers. comm.). You must secure permission and provide the editors with written permission to cite these communications. Personal communications are not listed in the References section.
      16. No author given—Do not use “anonymous.” Cite the agency issuing the report, the series title, or the publisher: (National Park Service 1984; Norfolk Gazette 1815; CRM Archaeology Inc. 1998).
      17. A play—(Shakespeare, Hamlet 2.2.259–261 [act.scene.lines]).
      18. Published book reviews—Schuyler’s 1980 review of Deetz, found in American Antiquity 45:643–645, is cited in-text as (Schuyler 1980:644).
      19. Newspaper—Give the year and pages (Pennsylvania Gazette 1875:2; New York Times 1988[sec. 4]:E11). Do not list the day and month in the text reference but list them in the References section.
      20. Document in archives—If the document has no author, cite by title of document with abbreviations for long titles: (Essex Institute Sample Books 1794[1]:book 14).
      21. Publication or quotation cited in another source—Cite the original source whenever possible and include it in the References. In the occasional case when the original is so obscure that it cannot be easily located or retrieved, then list only the source used.
      22. Article located elsewhere in the current issue—(Reitz, this issue). Such citations are not listed in the References section.

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VII. References Cited

A. Alphabetizing Guidelines

      1. Author vs. Editor
        A single author entry precedes a single editor entry, then a multi-author entry beginning with the same name. Repeat the author’s name for listing edited works and for each new set of multiple authors.
      2. Company or Agency Names
        Entity names when used as the author will be alphabetized by the first letter of the entity name, excluding articles.
      3. One Author, Multiple Works
        List all works attributed to one author (author name listed only once) together and arrange them chronologically by publication date, from earliest to most recent (1890, 1900, 1920). Two or more works by the same author(s) and published in the same year should be arranged alphabetically by title and distinguished by letters after the date (1976a, 1976b).
      4. Personal Communications
        Personal communications with an author are not listed in the references. See section VI for citation of personal communications within narrative text.
      5. Prefixes
        Names beginning with Mac and Mc should be alphabetized as they are spelled; “St.” is alphabetized as if it were spelled out, but it is spelled according to the preference of the person. Names beginning with d’, de, du, van, or von are listed under the first letter of the beginning prefix. See sample listing below.
      6. Two-part Names
        Treat two-part names as though they are one word (Ivor Noël Hume is listed under “N”; Susan Beske-Diel is listed under “B”). Latin-American surnames are alphabetized by patronymic surnames—or the first of the two surnames (Morales Padron, Francisco).

B. Sample Alphabetical Listing




The Autocar Company


S. D. Kimbark Co.



Sears, Roebuck and Co.






T. Eaton Company

De Bow


Van der Donck



van Gogh

De Hostos


Van Rensselaer



Van ’t Veer


St. Dennis

Vaughan Williams



von den Driesch


St. Laurent


C. General Requirements

Check references for completeness. In general, answer the question: “How could this reference be found?” Use this manual for guidance. Do not assume the reader has the knowledge, or that information is obvious. Editors can remove redundant or extra information if necessary. Do not forget city/state or city/province or city/country (regardless of the familiarity of the city), location of repositories or sponsoring agencies, full names of authors, dates of publication, etc. Avoid using authors’ initials (unless author prefers this) or n.d. for “no date” (make an educated guess and bracket the date).

If vital data are missing, such as the author’s full name, correct full title, year of publication, publisher, or city of publication, find the original source used or go to the Library of Congress Online Catalog <> and other reliable library sources.

Sources that are published electronically in addition to a regular published format should have the URL address added to the end of the reference.

      1. Names
        If no author’s name is given, do not use “anonymous,” cite the agency issuing the report, the series title, or the publisher: (Norfolk Gazette 1815; National Park Service 1984; CRM Archaeology, Inc. 1998).

        1. Cite the full first names of authors and editors following the surname as given in a publication or byline (Robert L. Schuyler, not R. L. Schuyler). When the surname occurs first, as in Chinese and some other languages, do not reverse the order (Lee Bo not Lee, Bo).
        2. Use initials only when an author’s full name is unknown or when the authors purposely publish their name as such (L. S. Cressman, not Luther S. Cressman), as opposed to the convention of the publisher. When two initials are used, a space is placed between the first and second initial (K. C. Chang, not K.C. Chang). Do not add periods after initials where none properly exist (J Harlan Bretz).
        3. Repeat the family name of a married couple (Kovel, Ralph M., and Terry H. Kovel, not Kovel, Ralph M., and Terry H.)
        4. When names have changed and are not obvious, combine all of them under the author’s preferred name with a cross-reference to that name (Kjorness, Annalies Corbin 1965. See Corbin, Annalies). Do not cross-reference obvious variations or where the nonpreferred variations can be listed in brackets (Wylie, Jerry [Henry G.]).
        5. Correct obvious and well-known printers’ errors (James A. Teit, not James H. Teit).
        6. Place a comma between a name and “junior” or “senior” but not with roman numerals (John Paul Jones, Jr.; Allan P. Slickpoo, Sr.; J. Barto Arnold III).
        7. If names of agencies serving several times as authors are abbreviated in narrative text citations, list the abbreviation after the name in the references––National Park Service (NPS).
      2. Dates
        1. a. For multiple editions use the date of the edition in hand but attempt to find and use the appropriate edition, generally the earliest or latest. For a classic or an historical work, the earliest date is the most appropriate. For theoretical works and compilations, the latest edition is preferred. If a reprint edition is used, list the original copy date with the reprint date listed following the title.
        2. b. Avoid using “n.d.” for “no date.” Every work has a date of some kind, or one that can be estimated. For a work with no specific date of publication, the approximate date or date range should be placed in brackets—[1979], [1930s].
      3. Titles
        Use a single tab to separate the date and title.

        1. List a book title as found on the title page, which lists the title, author, and publisher. If an alternate title such as on the spine is well known, then it is appropriate to list it in parentheses following the official title. For historical titles from the 18th century or earlier, keep the original capitalization and spelling. List a journal title as found on the front cover, which lists the volume and issue number as well as date and year.
        2. Use italics for the title of a published book or journal. Do not use the term “unpublished”; the lack of italics indicates a manuscript was not published. In a multiple-volume work and where the volumes are distinct or with different publication dates, it is permissible to list only those volumes used. The edition of a book will follow the title in Arabic numerals (2nd edition, 3rd edition). Publisher’s series titles (Civilization of the American Indian series, University of Oklahoma, Norman; Studies in Historical Archeology series, Academic Press, New York, NY) should not be confused with occasional series titles and are not listed.
        3. Use no punctuation for the title of a chapter in a book or an article in a journal. Quotation marks are used only when the title is referred to in the text, not in the list of references.
        4. Capitalize all words in titles except for articles, coordinate conjunctions, and prepositions (regardless of length) not following punctuation. Always capitalize the first word following a colon in a title.
        5. Provide an English translation for any titles not in Roman type (Cyrillic, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, etc.); an English translation of all foreign titles should be provided as a courtesy to readers. The title will be followed by the translated title in parentheses. For titles in any language but English, capitalize only the words that would be capitalized in normal prose. In French, Spanish, and Italian titles, capitalize the first word and those proper nouns capitalized in the original title. In German titles, capitalize the first word and all nouns—both common and proper—but not proper adjectives. In Greek and Latin titles, capitalize the first word, proper nouns, and proper adjectives.
      4. Series Titles
        Be careful to italicize only those portions of the title that should be, but likewise do not omit italics from any part of the official title. Italicize the series title only if it is the main search criterion. If a series title is especially generic such as Research Reports, it is acceptable to place an institutional or society identifier before the italic title.
      5. Pages
        Use inclusive page numbers for parts of a publication used, chapter in a book, article in a journal, section of a report, etc. List the entire page number, separated by an en dash, without shortening the entry (156–167, not 156-67). Page numbers are not needed to reference a book in general. The abbreviations f. and ff. and the word passim are not used as a substitute for accurate page references.
      6. Publisher
        Do not include the word “Publisher,” “Books,” “Printing,” “Inc.,” or “Ltd.” for books and monographs; however, include “Company” or “Co.” and “Press,” which are parts of the name. Do not use Government Printing Office as a publisher; list the agency sponsoring the publication. Do not use MacLean, Roger and Company, which is the Queen’s printer.

        1. List only the primary city of publication (University of California Press, Berkeley, not University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles) for books. List the city of publication for newspapers. Do not list the city of publication for periodicals, except when they are obscure or long out-of-print. If you are not sure whether a series is an occasional series or periodical, include the city of publication; it is easier to edit it out than look it up later.
        2. Always follow the city of publication with the state or province, except when the publisher is already identified with a state such as a specific state university press. Outside North America list the country following the city of publication. Even well-known cities are followed by the state or country of publication (New York, NY; London, UK).
        3. Use postal abbreviations to indicate the state of publication (CA or NY; not California, Calif., Ca., New York, or N.Y.)
        4. In place of a publisher, use “n.p.” for “no place” if there is no publisher; if the book is privately printed but not by the author, use “privately printed”; use the author’s name when the author is the publisher.
      7. 7. Internet Sources
        Electronic sources found on the Internet include electronic sites (World Wide Web, FTP, etc.) and electronic communications (discussion lists, Usenet Group, and email). Online works are treated in much the same way as printed matter, but the impermanent nature of electronic content and its ability to be manipulated requires some special treatment. The following provisos are derived from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, pages 644–646:

        1. Maintain a copy of cited Internet sourceThe researcher must maintain a copy of the information as cited, treating these copies as permanent personal papers. This is an SHA requirement.
        2. Attain required permissions “Anything posted on the Internet is ‘published’ in the sense of copyright and must be treated as such for the purposes of complete citation and clearance of permissions, if relevant” (Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, p. 644).
        3. Use most recent URL and verify oftenVerify accuracy of citations to electronic content as close to manuscript submission date as possible and on proof pages to be sure the source has not changed or become unavailable since first accessed. If a website is no longer available, the citation must state this following the URL: Accessed 5 November 2006; site now discontinued.
        4. Cite first the media consultedIf a publication is available in both print and electronic form, the possibility for difference between both sources exists. Be sure to cite the actual form consulted for your manuscript.
        5. Access or revision dates—Cite the access date after the URL: Accessed 5 November 2006. According to the Chicago Manual of Style, revision dates “should not be given in addition to or in lieu of the access date” because they are not universally used nor reliable.

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D. Sample References

If you have a reference that is not covered by any of these examples, provide the editor with all pertinent information in the closest logical format. Err on the side of providing too much rather than too little information.

1. Books

      1. a. One authorList last name first.
        Ferguson, Leland
        1992    Uncommon Ground: An Archaeology of Early African America 1650–1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
      2. Multiple authors—List all authors’ first and last names but write only the senior author’s name in reverse order. Do not use “et al.” in the references; only appropriate for in-text citation.
        Cotter, John L., Daniel G. Roberts, and Michael Parrington
        1992    The Buried Past: An Archaeological History of Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
      3. Anonymous or pseudonym used—Avoid using “anonymous.” If the real name is known, use brackets to indicate real name or cite the agency issuing the report, the series title, or the publisher.
        Ceram, C. W. [C. W. Marek] 1953    Gods, Graves, and Scholars. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY.
        [Blank, Henry K.] 1910    Art for Its Own Sake. Nonpareil Press, Chicago, IL.
      4. Society or government agency as author
        United States Bureau of the Census
        1936    United States Census of Agriculture: 1935,Vol. 1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC.
      5. Edited book
        Schuyler, Robert L. (editor)
        1978    Historical Archaeology: A Guide to Substantive and Theoretical Contributions. Baywood, Farmingdale, NY.
        Garrow, Patrick H.
        1981    The Use of Converging Lines of Evidence for Determining Socioeconomic Status. In Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology,Suzanne M. Spencer-Wood, editor, pp. 217–231. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
      6. Translated book
        Ortega y Gasset, José
        1984       An Interpretation of Universal History,Mildred Adams, translator. W. W. Norton, New York, NY.
      7. g. Multiple references, same author, same year—Listed in text as (Rose 1985a, 1985b) or Rose (1985a, 1985b), but list them separately in the References section with the edited source second:
        Rose, Jerome C.
        1985a  Cedar Grove and Black American History. In Gone to a Better Land, Jerome C. Rose, editor, pp. 146–152. Arkansas Archeological Research Series, No. 25. Fayetteville.
        Rose, Jerome C. (editor)
        1985b  Gone to a Better Land. Arkansas Archeological Research Series, No. 25. Fayetteville.
      8. Reprint of an earlier edition—In the first example the earlier edition is preferable for historical reasons, and the reprint pagination is exactly the same as the original. In the second example the latest edition is preferable for its currency, and the reprint pagination is different from the original.
        Ernst, Robert
        1949    Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825–1863. King’s Crown Press, New York, NY. Reprinted 1994 by Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY.
        Deetz, James
        1996    In Small Things Forgotten: The Archaeology of Early American Life, expanded and revised from 1977 edition. Doubleday, New York, NY.
      9. Multiple editions—Indicate the edition used in your manuscript, following the title.
        Fagan, Brian M.
        1988    In the Beginning: An Introduction to Archaeology, 6th edition. Scott, Foresman/Little, Brown, Boston, MA.
      10. Multivolume—If the word “volume” is part of the title, it is italicized; otherwise, it is not. “Volume” is abbreviated as “Vol.” unless it is spelled out as part of the title. The general series editor is not listed. The volume number precedes the volume title.
        Deagan, Kathleen A.
        1987    Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, 1550–1800, Vol. 1, Ceramics, Glassware, and Beads. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
        Fenton, William N.
        1978       Northern Iroquoian Culture Patterns. In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15, Northeast,Bruce G. Trigger, editor, pp. 296–321. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
      11. Author as publisher—Privately printed by the author.
        Cotter, John L.
        1968    Handbook of Historical Archaeology. John L. Cotter, Wyncote, PA.
      12. Privately printedPrivately printed but not by the author.
        Heinton, Louise J.
        1972    Prince George’s Heritage. Privately printed, Baltimore, MD.
      13. Publisher and/or place of publication not given—Use “n.p.” for “no place” or “no publisher given” when none is known.
        Griswold, Don L., and Jean Griswold
        1958    Colorado’s Century of “Cities.” Smith-Brooks, n.p.
      14. Monographs or irregular series
        Generally, the title of a work is italicized, unless the work is contained within a larger work or can only be found under the series name. Always be sure to include series information as part of the publisher’s information.
        Nassaney, Michael S. (editor)
        1999    An Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey to Locate Remains of Fort St. Joseph (20BE23) in Niles, Michigan. Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Archaeological Report, No. 22. Kalamazoo.
        Osborne, Douglas
        1957    Excavations in the McNary Reservoir Basin near Umatilla, Oregon. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 166, River Basin Surveys Papers, 24. Washington, DC.
        Staski, Edward (editor)
        1987    Living in Cities: Current Research in Urban Archaeology. Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication Series, No. 5. California, PA.
        Wall, Diana DiZerega
        1987    Settlement System Analysis in Historical Archaeology: An Example from New York City. In Living in Cities: Current Research in Urban Archaeology, Edward Staski, editor, pp. 65–74. Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication Series, No. 5. California, PA.
      15. Government documentsInclude abbreviation in parentheses if cited more than three times in text. The Government Printing Office (GPO) is never listed as the publisher. It is only the printer; the publisher is the bureau, division, or other unit responsible for the work (Smithsonian Institution, National Park Service, Department of Agriculture, Department of the Interior, etc.). The last example is also an example of parallel series, both of which are italicized.
        Kaye, Clifford A.
        1961    Pleistocene Stratigraphy of Boston, Massachusetts. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 424B:73–76. Washington, DC.
        Mason, Otis T.
        1900    Pointed Bark Canoes of the Kutenai and Amur. United States National Museum Report for 1899, pp. 523–537. Washington, DC.
        Stevens, Isaac I.
        1854    Report of Isaac Stevens, Governor, Superintendent. Annual Report of the Bureau of Indians Affairs for the Year 1854, pp. 392–462. 33rd Congress, 2nd Session, Senate Executive Document, 1(1) (Serial Set 746) and House Executive Document, 1 (Serial Set 777). Washington, DC. 

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2. Dissertations

Use the more inclusive “Doctoral dissertation” (rather than Ph.D.) and Master’s thesis. 

      1. Published—Note italics. Published dissertations are available from University Microfilms International (UMI). If you are unsure concerning a dissertation being listed by UMI, see the front matter of a recent Dissertation Abstracts volume for a list of participating institutions with the first year of their participation or look up the author and title at < dxweb/search> (note that this service provides only the past two years for free; otherwise use a library that subscribes to the service). Include the city and state, unless part of the school’s name.
        Shackel, Paul A.
        1987    A Historical Archaeology of Personal Discipline. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Buffalo. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI.
      2. Unpublished dissertation, thesis, or other academic papers—Note no italics. The only U.S. institution currently giving doctoral degrees in historical archaeology and not participating in UMI is Harvard University. Do not use the redundant “unpublished.” If the title is not italicized, it is not published.
        Corbin, Annalies
        1995    Material Culture of Nineteenth Century Steamboat Passengers on the Bertrand and Arabia. Master’s thesis, Department of History, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. 

3. Gray literature

Gray literature, produced by government agencies, universities, corporations, research centers, associations and societies, and professional organizations, includes technical reports, pre-prints, fact sheets, standards, patents, working papers, committee reports, business documents, newsletters, government documents, technical documentation, conference proceedings, white papers, and symposia bulletins not found through normal bibliographic sources or databases. It can be published or unpublished.

      1. Contract reports, published
        Reports in a named series will have the title of the work italicized. List the title of the series if there is one.
        Adams, William H.
        1977    Silcott, Washington: Ethnoarchaeology of a Rural American Community. Washington State University, Laboratory of Anthropology, Report of Investigations, No. 54. Pullman.
        Blukis Onat, Astrida R.
        1976    Archaeological Excavations at Site 45-JE-16, Indian Island, Jefferson County, Washington. Washington Archaeological Research Center, Project Report, No. 30. Pullman.
      2. Contract reports, unpublished
        Note no italics. Cite by author(s) or editor(s), date, and title (not italicized) followed by “Report to” agency or company that contracted for the work (with the city and state, unless part of the name) and “from” unit and institution or company (with the city and state) that prepared the report. Do not use the redundant “unpublished” or “on file at.”
        Brauner, David R.
        1989    The French-Canadian Archaeological Project Willamette Valley, Oregon: Site Inventory. Report to Oregon State Historic Preservation Office, Salem, from Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
        Minor, Rick, and Stephen Dow Beckham
        1984    Archaeological Testing at Fort Cascades and the Cascades Townsite (45SA9). Report to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, OR, from Heritage Research Associates, Eugene, OR.
      3. Internal reports
        Precede the name of the entity that curates the report with “Manuscript.”
        Jones, Olive R.
        1989    Squares, Rounds, Octagons, Flasks, and Vials; Dark Green Glass Bottles. Manuscript, Parks Canada, Ottawa, ON.
        Ross, Lester A.
        1976    Fort Vancouver, 1829–1860: A Historical Archeological Investigation of the Goods Imported and Manufactured by the Hudson’s Bay Company. Manuscript, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Vancouver, WA.
        Schumacher, Paul J. F.
        1960    Archeological Field Notes, Whitman Archeological Excavations, October 1–28, 1960. Manuscript, National Park Service, San Francisco, CA.
      4. Conference papers—If the papers presented are published in a proceeding, then the title of the proceeding would be italicized, and the paper would be treated as an article in a published piece.
        Neiman, Fraser D.
        1984    An Evolutionary Approach to House Plans and the Organization of Production on the Chesapeake Frontier. Paper presented at the 17th Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, Williamsburg, VA.
        Smith, Marvin T.
        1983    Chronology from Glass Beads. In Proceedings of the 1982 Glass Trade Bead Conference, Charles Hayes III, editor, pp. 147–148. Rochester Museum and Science Center, Research Records, No. 16. Rochester, NY.

4. Internet Documents

Sources that are published electronically in addition to a regular published format should have the URL address added to the end of the citation. Keep a copy of all documents obtained from the Internet. Sources that are published only electronically are referenced using the following basic format:

Year [date of site/page creation or date of message]  Title of site/page/publication or subject of message. Title of major site home page, Name of sponsoring institution <Internet address>. Access date. [If website no longer available, indicate that here after access date] (site now discontinued).

Florida Museum of Natural History
2004    Historical Archaeology Digital Type Collection. Historical Archaeology at the Florida Museum of Natural History,University of Florida, Gainesville <>. Accessed 4 January 2005.

      1. Archived works published elsewhere—Cite the Internet source if that is what the author has used. First cite the original publication date and location of the work, if known.
        Ogden, Peter Skene
        1909    Peter Skene Ogden’s Snake Country Journal, 1825–1826. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society 10(4). American Mountain Men < mtman/htmi/ogdn2526.html>. Accessed 29 November 2006.
      2. Email—Considered personal communication and not listed in References section. See section VI for in-text citation.
      3. Discussion lists—listserv, majordomo, listproc, blogs, etc. List the author’s email address after the name. Include email subject, location of discussion list, and date of posting.
        Steen, Carl <>
        1997    Re: Button marks—help. <>. List Archives, 22 January (posted date).
      4. FTP
        Edwards, Dean
        1994    Shamanish-General Overview—Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). <>. Accessed 19 April.
      5. Personal, academic, or agency website
        Stanford Archaeological Center
        2004    Market Street Chinatown Archaeological Project, Post Summer Update. Stanford Archaeology Center, Stanford University <>. Accessed 21 October 2006.
        Clouse, Robert A.
        1996    American Fur Company District Headquarters, Mendota, Minnesota, USA. Minnesota Historical Society: Archaeology, Excavations On-line < site1.html>. Accessed 25 May 2012.
      6. Usenet group— List the author’s email address after the name.
      7. Legg, Sonya <>
        1994    African History Book List. In Usenet Group <soc.culture.african>. 5 September

5. Newspapers

Include the date and the volume, issue, and page numbers, if known (many newspapers do not have volume and issue numbers).

      1. Authored article
        Baker, Herbert C.
        1950    Natron Cut-off Makes Eugene a Rail Center. Register-Guard 23 July:3–4. Eugene, OR.
      2. Unauthored article
        Bonners Ferry Herald
        1987    Upfront, the Mystery of the “Chinese Ovens.” Bonners Ferry Herald 14 June,97(3):1. Bonners Ferry, ID.
        Pennsylvania Gazette
        1729    No title. Pennsylvania Gazette 1:3. Philadelphia, PA.
      3. Advertisement—Provide pagination and specific advertiser, if available.
        New York Evening Post
        1858    Ebenezer Collamore: Advertisement. New York Evening Post 21 December. New York, NY.


Includes journals, magazines, or newsletters—as in the American Antiquarian and Semi-Weekly East Oregonian. The Wylie example below shows a title within a title.

      1. Always include the issue number (in parentheses) if the series has them. Also provide the usual volume, number, and pages for popular magazines (Time, New Yorker) as for journals, not just dates.
        Beaudry, Mary C.
        1990    Looting by Any Other Name: Archaeological Ethics and the Looting Problem. Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 23(l):13–14.
        Reitz, Elizabeth J.
        1986    Urban/Rural Contrasts in Vertebrate Fauna from the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain. Historical Archaeology 20(2):47–58.
        1968    The Man They Ate for Dinner. Time 9(19):98.
      2. Articles in thematic issues of Historical Archaeology. Thematic issues of the journal are prepared by guest editors and should be cited accordingly.
        Joseph, J. W.
        2004    Resistance and Compliance: CRM and the Archaeology of the African Diaspora. In Transcending Boundaries, Transforming the Discipline: African Diaspora Archaeologies in the New Millenium, Maria Franklin and Larry McKee, editors. Thematic issue, Historical Archaeology 38(1):18–31.
      3. Provide a place of publication for a journal if it is obscure or long out of print.
        American Antiquarian
        1889    An Aboriginal Coat of Mail. American Antiquarian 11(3):196–197. Chicago, IL.
        Semi-Weekly East Oregonian
        1882    The Competing Road. Semi-Weekly East Oregonian 7(84):3. Pendleton, OR.
      4. Provide reprint information for old or obscure journals.
        Osborne, Douglas
        1955    Nez Perce Horse Castration—A Problem in Diffusion. Davidson Journal of Anthropology 1(2):113–122. Seattle. Reprinted 1987 in Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 21(1&2):121–140.
      5. Titles within titles—A book title within the article title (a book review) is in italics and an article title within an article title is in quotes.
        Ayres, James E.
        1990    Review of Wong Ho Luen: An American Chinatown, Great Basin Foundation, editor. Historical Archaeology 24(3):121–123.
        Wylie, Alison
        1989    Archaeological Cables and Tacking: The Implications of Practice for Bernstein’s “Options beyond Objectivism and Relativism.” Philosophy of the Social Sciences 19:1–18.

7. Primary Documents and Archival Materials

These should be described in a logical sequence from the specific document, to the file, to the collection, to the repository, to the institution, to the city, and to the state or country. If the documents are recorded in another medium, like film, microfiche, tape, etc., indicate the medium or media used.

      1. Letters
        Adjutant General, Department of the Columbia
        1886    Letter to Commanding Officer, Fort Coeur d’Alene from the Assistant Adjutant General, Department of the Columbia. Manuscript, Letters and Telegrams Received, Fort Sherman, Idaho, Part V, Entry 8, Box 8, 1886-764, Record Group 393, National Archives, Washington, DC.
        Carlin, William
        1887    Letter to Assistant Adjutant General, 15 August. Manuscript, Letters Received, Adjutant General’s Office 1889–1887, Microfilm 689, Roll 533, Frames 349–351, War Department, Main Series, 1881–1889, Record Group 93, National Archives, Washington, DC.
        Downer, Samuel
        1850    Letter to Horace Mann, 8 August. Manuscript, Horace Mann Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston.
      2. Other primary sources—
        Maryland State Archives
        1671    Inventory of the Estate of Robert Slye. Testamentary Proceedings, 5:152–190, Maryland State Archives, Maryland Hall of Records, Annapolis.
        1988    Gold and Silver of the Atocha and Santa Margarita. Auction catalog for 14–15 June, Christie’s, New York, NY.
        Essex Institute Sample Books
        [1794]  Sample Books of Candlesticks, Teapots, and other Objects. Essex Institute, Salem, MA.
        George, Donald
        1983    Interview by Lavina Felsman, 15 March. Manuscript and audio tape, Coeur d’Alene Tribal Memory Project: Oral History in Coeur d’Alene Language, Tape 2, Coeur d’Alene Education Department, Desmet, ID.
        Gibby, Lon (director and writer)
        1979    Echoes of Yesterday, Donald Ball, producer. 16 mm film and video, Creative Audio and Video, Spokane, WA.
        Missouri Historical Society
        1983    American Fur Company Account Books. Microfilm,Missouri Historical Society, St. Louis.
        Stimson, Henry L.
        1918    Stimson Diary and War Letters, February. Manuscript, Henry L. Stimson Papers, Special Collections, Sterling Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
        United States Geological Survey (USGS)
        1979    Blackstone, Massachusetts, Quadrangle Map, 7.5 minute series. U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC.

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VIII. Useful Checklists

Use these checklists as a reminder of important steps. Double-check your manuscript to be sure you are meeting the society’s style and format requirements. Please keep all formatting to a minimum. Be certain that all in-text references are in the References section and that all items in the References section are used in the text. This is the major problem and the most costly of time and funds in the entire copyediting process.

      1. Manuscript Sections
        Manuscript, including

        • Cover page (first page)
        • Author name(s) (following page)
        • Title of article
        • Abstract of article
        • Body text with headings
        • Acknowledgments (optional)
        • References
        • Endnotes (optional)
        • Name-and-address block
        • Appendix (strongly discouraged and only when absolutely necessary)
        • Figure captions (optional if no figures)
        • Tables and Figures (optional)
      2. Cover Page Requirements
        • Name(s)
        • Address(es)
        • Work and home telephone numbers
        • Email address
      3. Sending Figures
        • Electronic media must be saved on previously unused CD or thumb drives.
        • Include any needed signed permissions with the final manuscript. Original artwork from other copyrighted works or from specific collections cannot be published without initially placing on file with the editorial office, copies of all requisite reproduction permissions
      4. Securing Permissions
        • Statement describing the item being used
        • Signature and title of the person giving permission (email acceptable)
        • Title of the article in which it will be used
        • Title of the specific publication in which the article is to be published
      5. Manuscript Requirements
        • Do not format the text so that it looks like the journal.
        • Use normal style and a standard font, Times New Roman 12-point is preferred, throughout.
        • Use one space between all sentences.
        • Indent first lines of all paragraphs 0.5 in. Use no tabs except in tables and references.
        • Use American spelling for any words in English, but use appropriate diacritical marks.
        • Use a comma in a series of three or more items and place all commas and periods inside final quotation marks.
        • Use formal, professional language––no profanity or contractions.
        • Check references for completeness.
        • Crosscheck each reference, table, and figure in the text.
        • Include hard copies of all figures.
      6. Final Submission
        • Run spell-checker one last time.
        • Make sure you have all required permissions for figures and personal communications in hand
        • Include your current home phone and especially your email address with your manuscript.
        • Register and Log in to the journal’s online submission site:
        • Follow instructions on the site for uploading your article and associated files for images and tables.


And Remember…

      • Respond to all editorial queries in a timely fashion.
      • Return proof-pages files with changes or indicate “no changes” within 72 hours of email notification.


Guidelines for Current Research Submissions

    • All materials submitted to the newsletter should be prepared following the Society for Historical Archaeology Style Guide. [this being a link to the style guide] Current research contributions should be submitted to the appropriate current research editors (see above for geographic/topical areas and contact information) and not to the newsletter editor. Other submissions should be sent directly to the newsletter editor at

    • . Unsolicited material will be reviewed by the editor and published or returned as appropriate. All submissions must be submitted in an electronic format via email attachment to

    • or to the appropriate current research editor. Text should be submitted as a MSWord file, or alternately as a text only or ASCII file. Illustrations (drawings and photographs) are encouraged and will be used as space allows. All illustrations should be sent electronically, preferably in Tiff or Jpeg format, with a relatively high resolution (300 dpi or greater). If absolutely necessary, original photos or drawings may be submitted and will be returned. Guidelines for Current Research contributions:

      • Current Research contributions should be related to a single specific subject, such as a site or project investigation or a thematic research project.
      • Each contribution should contain as much of the following information as applicable:
        • Name and addresses affiliation of project directors and funding or administrative agencies.
        • Concise statement of the research problems being investigated, including:
          • goals and purposes for conducting the research;
          • geographical location of the research;
          • temporal period covered by the research;
          • types of material culture remains being investigated.
        • Concise statement of the major results of the research, including:
          • citation of manuscript and published reports completed;
          • information as to the current and projected location of new artifact collections created from the research.
        • Current research contributions should:
          • be identified by state or country, and site and/or thematic topic
          • include the name of the contribution(s) writer(s)
          • be brief, normally one to two pages in length — longer submissions
          • will be accepted on a space-available basis

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