Glassmaking & Glassmakers

Makers mark on a late 19th century beer bottle; click to enlarge.

Bottle & Glass Makers Markings
HOME: Glassmaking & Glassmakers: Bottle & Glass Makers Markings

(Click HERE to jump down this page to the listing of linked Makers Marking articles.)

The subject of bottle makers marks is a complex one - as is virtually everything to do with bottle dating and identification.  However, the subject is important to refining the estimated date range for the manufacture of a bottle, how the bottle was made to some extent, and for the determination of origin (website "goals" #1, #3, and #4 noted on the Homepage). 

Some glass containers make quite obvious which glass company made the item.  For example, the quart canning jar pictured to the right is boldly embossed on one side with PACIFIC / SAN FRANCISCO / GLASS WORK (sic) making it easily clear that the jar was manufactured by the Pacific Glass Works of San Francisco, CA. - the first successful glass company west of the Rockies - which operated under that name from 1862 to 1876 (Toulouse 1971; Lockhart et al. 2018x).   The full story on this glass company is available on this website at the following link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/PacificGlassWorks.pdf

Other makers marks are not as obvious as this jar.  The image at the top of this page is of the base of a Wisconsin made beer bottle embossed with C. C. G. C. / No 1. on the base; it is also embossed E. L. HUSTING / MILWAUKEE/ WIS. in a circular body plate (the reverse side is also embossed THIS BOTTLE / NOT TO / BE SOLD).  This bottle was certainly made by the Cream City Glass Company (Milwaukee, WI.) which operated from 1888 to 1893, possibly at plant #1 as it is believed they had two separate plants at the same location and the number "2" has been observed on at least one other bottle with the same makers marking (Lockhart et al. 2014v; article available at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CreamCity.pdf).  Eugene L. Husting was in business under his name from 1877 to 1900 (Van Wieren 1995) which more than spans the time that Cream City Glass was in business, producing a certain (as certain as the historical record is accurate) date range for the production of this bottle to between 1888 and 1893.  This is typical of the type of makers marks found on the bases of mouth-blown beer bottles produced from the 1870s through the 1910s until National Prohibition and is an example of how useful makers marks can be for the accurate dating of historic bottles.  (Photo courtesy of Bill Lockhart.)

The following is quoted from the introduction to the book Bottle Makers and Their Marks by Dr. Julian Toulouse and is one of the better quick summaries on the subject of maker's marks pertinent to the goals of this website. (Note: Dr. Toulouse wrote his book from the perspective of assisting collector's as well as archaeologist's as implied in the following quote.):

Trademarks, whether registered or not, brand names, and other marks and symbols of identification found on bottles are datum points in determining the history and ages of the collectors' bottles.  When the owner of the mark is known, and when more exact dates can be assigned to its use, the mark becomes a means of dating the piece upon which it appears.  If the mark was used for many years, we may have to rely on other considerations in order to date the piece within the mark's span of years. (Website author's note: "considerations" would include manufacturing based diagnostic features - a primary goal of this website - and/or local research in to the user of the bottle, if that fact is known via embossing or labeling.)  If the period of use of the mark was short, the age of the bottle may be pinpointed to a short period of time.  In some instances, lucky for the collector but unlucky for the user of the mark, the period may be reduced to one or two years.  One factory making beer bottles in the 1880s, whose ownership, name, and mark changed five times in eleven years, has helped historical archaeologists date a number of sites in the western United States. (Toulouse 1971)

Export style "pint beer from 1941; click to enlarge.Base of an Owens-Illinois Glass Co. produced bottle dated 1941.The pictures to the left show the base of an 11 oz. beer bottle (and the entire bottle) which shows the some of the distinctive marks that the Owens-Illinois Glass Company - which had many plants around the country - used beginning in 1929 or 1930 until at least the mid-1950s.  More specifically, the marks on this particular bottle indicate it was made in 1941 ("1" to the right of the diamond O-I mark) at the Oakland, CA. plant ("20" to the left of the makers mark).  Why not 1931 or 1951?  See the machine-made bottle dating page Question #11 for more information on this bottle.  Also consult the two part article by Bill Lockhart and Russ Hoenig (retired senior engineer of the Owens-Illinois Glass Co.) - located at the links below - for more information on the history and marks of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company.  That company's marks are probably the most commonly encountered U. S. makers marks on bottles made in the 20th century (Lockhart & Hoenig 2018t & 2018u). 

Owens-Illinois Glass Company Part 1 - History.
Owens-Illinois Glass Company Part 2 - Logos & Codes.

The information below directs a user towards some of these sources of information or provides links to other works that will assist in the interpretation of most known makers marks.  Some marks - like the Owens-Illinois Glass Company mark shown above - have a lot of good information available to allow for definitive interpretation; a link to an excellent article on the subject is found below.  Other suspected maker's marks have not even been accurately assigned to a particular glassmaker and even if the maker is known, much company specific research has yet to be done.  In short, though a lot of information is available there is still a lot yet unknown; the author of this website is a member of a group that is currently pursuing that task...more on that below...



Specific Bottle Maker Articles


Salem Glass Works company store "script"; click to enlarge.This important website section is devoted largely to the published articles of the Bottle Research Group (BRG) members - past, present...and future (more below) - on most major bottle producers in the U. S. and a few Canadian, Mexican and English manufacturers...all free of charge!

In order to make full use of this comprehensive information, however, one has to know what mark or marks were used by what glass or bottle manufacturing company.  If not known and the marking is either a clearly identifiable alphabetical letter or letters (like A. B. Co. for the American Bottle Company) or a distinct logo or symbol, a user must first determine the origin of that makers marking.  This can be done by using the appropriate "Makers Markings Logo Table" to ascertain which mark/marks were used by what company.  This alphabetical grouping of individual tables is located further down this page below the following box or by clicking on the following link to "jump" to that section: 

Makers Markings Logo Tables Chart

(As an alternative,  consult the Glass Factory Marks on Bottles website.  The following link will take one to David Whitten's exceptional webpages that cover most known American glass makers marks assigning specific markings to the known (or strongly suspected) user of the marking - Glass Factory Marks on Bottles Website  David Whitten is a serious avocational student of bottle and insulator makers marks and his pages are a wealth of information on the subject.  His webpage is also a great resource for those wishing to figure out what an observed makers mark stands for on a bottle they may have and an approximate date range.  Whitten's site typically also includes some brief history behind the companies.  Also see his main webpage - "Glass Bottle Marks - Collecting History of the Glass Manufacturing Industry" - at the following link:  http://www.glassbottlemarks.com)

Important Notice to Users!

Currently, and ongoing for foreseeable future, the Bottle Research Group is using this Historic Bottle Website to exclusively publish new makers markings articles as well as revisions of previously published ones.  This is all directed towards the eventual completion of...

"ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MANUFACTURERS MARKS ON GLASS CONTAINERS"

This work is a massive treatise on American glass container manufacturers from the late 18th century to the present day.  These new/revised articles are noted below followed by the publishing date.  Supplementary files to complete each alphabetical section - e.g., "Preface/Introduction & Table of Contents" and the pertinent "List of Factories" and "Logo Table" of actual bottle markings - will also be listed in the appropriate alphabetical section. 

Currently (Early 2021) all of the Makers Markings sections are complete!  Take a look at these sections below which if printed out (well over 6000 pages!) comprises the complete 14 volumes of the "Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers."

Final copies of all the alphabetical "Logo Tables" - PDF tables of the actual markings, the associated glass makers that used them, and dates of use - are posted in their entirety below.  All of the "A" through "Z" manufacturers articles are linked further down this page.  Updates to the articles will be posted as deemed necessary.  

These Tables in total comprise a quick reference guide for the identification & dating of makers markings found on historic bottles!

The articles listed further down the page (below the "Encyclopedia" alphabetical boxes and entitled "Previously Published Makers Markings Articles") are those published via other venues - primarily in "Bottles and Extras" which is the official publication of the The Federation of Historical Bottle Collectors (FOHBC). Although virtually all of these older articles are or will be superseded by updated web published articles, they will continue to be listed and available here as published articles of use as references.

All articles - previously published or new here - are also all found in the "Periodical & Journal Articles" section of the Reference Sources/Bibliography page. 

 

Makers Markings Logo Tables

All the above articles and tables are now (early 2021) considered final although any may be revised in the future as new information is available.

 

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MANUFACTURERS
MARKS ON GLASS CONTAINERS

"A" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "A" Table of Contents

"A" Factory List
"A" Logo Table

 

 

"B" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "B" Table of Contents

"B" Factory List
"B" Logo Table

 

"C" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "C" Table of Contents

"C" Factory List
"C" Logo Table
 

 

"D & E" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "D & E" Table of Contents

De Steiger Glass Company and the "Twister" Blowers  (1/2015)
The Dean and Foster Companies  (1/2015)
The DGCO Logos and the Glass Companies that Used Them  (2/2015)
The Diamond Glass Co. of Royersford, Pennsylvania  (2/2015)
The Diamond Glass Companies of Montreal, Canada  (3/2015)
Dillon Glass Co.  (3/2015)
Dixie Glass Co.  (3/2015)
The Dominion Glass Companies of Montreal, Canada  (3/2015)
Du Bois Glass Company  (3/2015)
Dyottville Glass Works (3/2015)
Other "D" Marks  (3/2015)

"D" Factory List
"D" Logo Table

E. R. Durkee & Co. and The Misunderstood Durkee Bottles  (5/2015)
Edgar Breffit & Co. 
(5/2015)
Newark Star and the Everett Factory 
(5/2015)
The E. G. CO. and E. G. Co. Logos  (6/2015)
Ellenville Glass Works  (6/2015)
Essex Glass Co.  (6/2015)
Eureka Jars and Their Makers  (6/2015)
Other "E" Marks  (6/2015)

"E" Factory List
"E" Logo Table

"F & G" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "F & G" Table of Contents

F. E. Reed and the Rochester Glass Works  (7/2015)
The Fahnestock Companies  (7/2015)
The Fairmont Bottle Company and the Johns Brothers  (7/2015)
Fairmount Glass Works  (7/2015)
Falls City Glass Co., Louisville, Kentucky  (7/2015)
Federal Glass Co.  (7/2015)
The Enigmatic F.G.MFG.Co Logo  (7/2015)
Fidelity Glass Co.  (8/2015)
Findlay Bottle Co.  (8/2015)
Flaccus Bros. - Part 1  (9/2015)
Flaccus Bros. - Part 2  (9/2015)
Florida Glass Mfg. Co.  (9/2015)
Foster-Forbes Glass Co.   (9/2015)
Frederick Heitz and the FHGW Logo  (9/2015)
Other "F" Marks  (9/2015)

"F" Factory List
"F" Logo Table

Gayner Glass Works  (11/2015)
Gilchrist Jar Co.  (11/2015)
Giles-Clough Glass Co. and Related Companies  (11/2015)
Glass Containers Corp. and Its Successors  (11/2015)
Glenshaw Glass Co.  (11/2015)
Graham Glass Co.  (11/2015)
Granite Glass Companies  (11/2015)
Great Western Glass Works  (11/2015)
The Glass Firms at Greenfield, Indiana  (12/2015)
Other "G" Marks  (12/2015)

"G" Factory List
"G" Logo Table

 

"H & I" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "H & I" Table of Contents

Glass Firms of the Hagerty Brothers  (5/2016)
Hamilton Family Glass Companies  (1/2016)
Hamilton Glass Works - Ontario  (1/2016)
Hart Glass Mfg. Co.  (1/2016)
Hazel-Atlas Glass Co.  (2/2016)
The H. J. Heinz Co. and the H. J. Heinz Glass Co.  (5/2016)
The Hemingray Glass Firms  (6/2016)
Henry W. Putnam and the Lightning Fastener  (6/2016)
The Bottles and History of the Heye Family Glass Works  (6/2016)
The Hero Glass Firms  (6/2016)
The Great Holt Glass Myth: A Study of Misidentification  (6/2016)
Holz, Clark & Taylor  (6/2016)
Hygeia Glass Corp. and the Hygeia Nursing Bottles  (6/2016)
Other "H" Marks  (6/2016)

"H" Factory List
"H" Logo Table

Ihmsen Glass Companies  (8/2016)
Illinois Glass Company  (8/2016)
-Appendix A - Illinois Glass Co. Catalog Codes (Mold Numbers) for Soda Bottles 1896-1920  (8/2016)
IGCo. Logos Unrelated to the Illinois Glass Co.  (8/2016)
Illinois-Pacific: A West Coast Phenomenon. Part I: Illinois-Pacific Glass Co. (1902-1926)  (8/2016)
Illinois-Pacific: A West Coast Phenomenon. Part II: Illinois-Pacific Glass Corp. (1926-1930)  (8/2016)
Illinois-Pacific: A West Coast Phenomenon. Part III: Illinois Pacific Coast Co. (1930-1933)  and Owens-Illinois Pacific Coast Co. (1933-1943)  (8/2016)
Other "I" Marks  (8/2016)

"I" Factory List
"I" Logo Table

 

 "J & K" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "J & K" Table of Contents

Jeannette Glass Co.  (9/2016)
John B. Brooke and the Gem Bottle & Supply Co.  (9/2016)
Other "J" Marks  (9/2016)

"J" Factory List
"J" Logo Table

Karl Hutter - The Stopper and the Bottles  (10/2016)
Keene-Marlboro-Street Glassworks  (10/2016)
Kentucky Glass Works Co.  (10/2016)
The Kearns Glass Companies of Zanesville  (1/2017)
Kerr Glass Mfg. Co.  (1/2017)
The Kilner Glass Companies (England) (1/2017)
Kimble Glass Co.  (3/2017)
Knox Glass Bottle Co.  (3/2017)
Other "K" Marks  (3/2017)

"K" Factory List
"K" Logo Table

 

 

"L" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "L" Table of Contents

    Lamb Glass Co.  (4/2017)
    Lamont Glass Co.  (4/2017)
    Lancaster Glass Works  (4/2017)
    The Latchford Glass Factories  (4/2017)
    Laurens Glass Works  (4/2017)
    Liberty Glass Co. and Related Companies  (4/2017)
    Lindell Glass Co.  (7/2017)
    A Tale of Two Glass Factories: Lockport Glass Co. & Loogootee Glass Co.
    Lockport Glass Works  (7/2017)
    Long Beach Glass  (7/2017)
    The Lorenz Family Glass Companies (including Lorenz & Wightman)
    Louisville Glass Works  (7/2017)
    Lynchburg Glass Factories  (7/2017)
    Lyndeborough Glass Co.  (7/2017)
    Other "L" Marks  (7/2017)   

"L" Factory List
"L" Logo Table

 

 "M" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "M" Table of Contents

   M&Co and the Diamond-M Logos  (9/2017)
   Mansfield Glass Works  (9/2017)
   Marion Flint Glass Co.  (9/2017)
   Marion Fruit Jar & Bottle Co.  (9/2017)
   Maryland Glass Corp.  (11/2017)
   Keystone Mason Jars, Part I: John L. Mason & His Companies (11/2017)
   Keystone Mason Jars, Part II: Mason Fruit Jar Co. & Keystone Users (11/2017)
   Massillon Bottle & Glass Co.  (11/2017)
   The Massillon Glass Works - Reed & Co.  (11/2017)
   Maywood Glass Co.  (11/2017)
   The Bottles of William McLaughlin  11/2017)
   Mid-West Glass Companies  (11/2017)
   Millville Bottle Works  (11/2017)
   The Mississippi Glass Company (2/2018)
   Missouri Glass Co. - A Study of Misunderstandings  (2/2018)
   The Moore Family Glass Houses of New Jersey  (2/2018)
   Other "M" Marks  (2/2018)  
 

"M" Factory List
"M" Logo Table

 

 

"N & O" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "N & O" Table of Contents

   Neodesha Bottle & Glass Co.  (3/2018)
   The New England Glass Companies  (3/2018)
   North Baltimore Bottle Glass Co.  (3/2018)
   Northern Glass Works and Northern Glass Co.  (3/2018)
   Northwestern Glass Co.  (3/2018)
   Nuttall & Co.  (3/2018)
   Other "N" Marks  (3/2018)

"N" Factory List
"N" Logo Table

   Obear-Nester Glass Co.  (6/2018)
   Ohio Fruit Jar Co.  (6/2018)
   Ohio Valley Glass Co. & Related Firms (6/2018)
   The Olean Glass Co.  (6/2018)
   Ottawa Glass Co.  (6/2018)
   The Owens Bottle Co., Part 1 - History  (6/2018)
   The Owens Bottle Co., Part 2 - Dating Logos & Codes  (6/2010)
   Owens-Illinois Glass Co., Part 1 - History  (10/2018)
   Owens-Illinois Glass Co., Part 2 - Logos & Codes 
(10/2018)
   Other "O" Marks 
(10/2018)

"O" Factory List
"O" Logo Table

 

 "P, Q & R" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "P, Q & R" Table of Contents

   Pacific Coast Glass Companies and Their Marks (12/2018)
   Pacific Glass Works  (12/2018)
   The Packham Firms - Jobbers in Liquor Bottles  (12/2018)
   Peerless Glass Co.  (12/2018)
   Pennsylvania Glass Co.  (12/2018)
   The Perfection Glass Co. - Separating Tableware and the Simplex Jar  (12/2018)
   The Pierce Glass Factories  (12/2018)
   Port Glass Co.  (12/2018)
   Portland Glass Co.  (12/2018)
   Poughkeepsie Glass Works  (12/2018)
   Other "P" Marks  (12/2018)

"P" Factory List
"P" Logo Table

   Quartz Glass & Mfg Co. and Its Predecessors   (2/2019)
   Other "Q" Marks  (2/2019)

"Q" Factory List
"Q" Logo Table

   Ravenna Glass Co.  (2/2019)
   Redfearn Bros. 
(2/2019)
   Rhodes Glass & Bottle Co. 
(2/2019)
   Richards Glass Co. 
(2/2019)
   The Ricketts Family Glass Firms
 (2/2019)
   Root Glass Co.
 (2/2019)
   The Glass Works of the Rylands Family and Hiram Codd
 (2/2019)
   Other "R" Marks
 (2/2019)

  

"R" Factory List
"R" Logo Table

 

 

"S" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "S" Table of Contents

    Samuel McKee & Co.  (3/2019)
   Salem Glass Works  (3/2019)
   Saltsburg Bottle Works Co.  (3/2019)
   The San Francisco Glass Companies  (3/2019)
   The Schram Companies  (3/2019)
   The Scranton Glass Firms  (3/2019)
   Seattle Glass Company  (6/2019)
   Severn Glass Co. and Southern Glass Co. - Who Used the S.G.Co. Mark?  (6/2019)
   The Sheldon-Foster Glass Co. and Related Companies  (6/2019)
   Later Smalley Companies  (6/2019)
   Southern Glass Co., Vernon, California  (6/2019)
   Southern Glass Works  (6/2019)
   Standard Glass Companies  (6/2019)
   Standard Milk Bottle Mfg. Co.  (6/2019)
   The Sterling and Sneath Glass Companies  (6/2019)
   Streator Bottle & Glass Co.  (6/2019)
   Swayzee Glass Co.  (9/2019)
   Swindell Brothers, Baltimore, Maryland  (9/2019)
   Sydenham Glass Co.  (9/2019)
   Other "S" Marks  (9/2019)
   The Mysterious Letter S  (9/2019)

"S" Factory List
"S" Logo Table


"T, U & V" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "T, U & V" Table of Contents

    The T.C. Wheaton Companies  (11/2019)
   The Thatcher Firms 
(11/2019)
   Three Rivers Glass Co. 
(11/2019)
   The Tibby Bros., Toledo Glass Co., and the Cryptic T Logo 
(11/2019)
   Travis Glass Co. 
(11/2019)
   The Turner Bros. & William F. Modes 
(11/2019)
   Tygart Valley Glass Co. 
(11/2019)
   Other "T" Marks  (11/2019)

"T" Factory List
"T" Logo Table

Union Glass Works/Union Glass Co., Kensington  (12/2019)
United Glass Bottle Manufacturers, Ltd.  (12/2019)
Universal Glass Products Co.  (12/2019)
The Upland Glass Companies  (12/2019)
Other "U" Marks  (12/2019)

"U" Factory List
"U" Logo Table

    The Victor Jar Co. and THE VICTOR  (3/2020)
    Victory Glass Companies 
(3/2020)
    Other "V" Marks
  (3/2020)

"V" Factory List
"V" Logo Table

 

 

 "W, X, Y & Z" Makers Markings

Preface/Introduction & Volume "W, X, Y, & Z" Table of Contents

   William Walton, Whiteman Brothers, and the Warren Glass Works (5/2020)
   WEBER  (5/2020)
   Weeks & Gilson and the South Stoddard Glass Co.  (5/2020)
   West Coast Glass Co.  (5/2020)
   Western Bottle Manufacturing Co.  (5/2020)
   Western Glass Manufacturing Co.  (5/2020)
   Whitall Tatum & Co. - Part I  (8/2020)
   Whitall Tatum & Co. - Part II  (8/2020)
   Whitney Glass Works  (8/2020)
   The Thomas Wightman Glass Companies  (8/2020)
   William Frank & Sons, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania  (8/2020)
   William Franzen & Son  (8/2020)
   William McCully & Co.  (11/2020)
   Winslow Glass Co.  (11/2020)
   Wisconsin Glass Co.  (11/2020)
   Woodbury Glass Houses  (11/2020)
   Wormser Glass Companies  (11/2020)
   The W.G.Co. Mark  (11/2020)
   Other "W" Marks  (11/2020)
   X Marks  (11/2020)
   York Glass and the YGCo Logo  (11/2020)
   Z Logos  (11/2020)
  

"W, X, Y & Z" Factory List
"W, X, Y & Z" Logo Table

 

 


 

Previously Published Makers Markings Articles

Virtually all of these articles have been replaced by the Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass  Containers articles listed and linked in the boxes above.  They will, however, continue to be listed and available here as previously published "legacy" articles of use as references.

Additional articles of interest

The Milk Route articles

The Milk Route is the official publication of the The National Association of Milk Bottle Collectors  and another venue for articles published by BRG members which may be of interest to site users.  To quote from their website:  The National Association of Milk Bottle Collectors (NAMBC) provides research, educational opportunities and information about milk bottles, milk bottle collecting and dairy memorabilia to its members, museums and the general public... The NAMBC is often called "The Milk Route", which was an early name for the organization, and is currently the name of the NAMBC's monthly newsletter.  The following are articles from that publication compliments of the NAMBC:

    Liberty Glass, Lamb Glass, and updates - Bill Lockhart (Issue #287:1-3; September 2004)
    The L. G. CO. Mark (Again) - Bill Lockhart (Issue #290:2; December 2004)
    Milk Bottle Production at the Knox Glass Bottle Co. - Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey (Issue #335:1-4; September 2008)
    The DuBois Glass Co. - Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr and Bill Lindsey (Issue #352:1-2; February 2010)
    The IPG Mark - Not Quite - Bill Lockhart (Issue #356:3; June 2010)

    The Mysterious Number System - Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Al Morin and others  (Issue #359:1-4; September 2010)

    Blake-Hart: The Square Milk Bottle -
Bill Lockhart, Pete Schulz, Carol Serr, Beau Schriever, and Bill Lindsey (Part 1 [Issue #369:1-3; July 2011] and Part 2 [Issue #370:1-3; August 2011])
  

    ...more to be added in the future...


Miscellaneous articles

The following are some additional articles not specifically related to makers markings or are from other publications, i.e., not Bottles and Extras or The Milk Route (see References page for the source):

    A New Twist for Uncapping Old Information about Glass Artifacts    Bill Lockhart (webpage [2001d])
    The Other Side of the Story: A Look at the Back of 7-Up Bottles   Bill Lockhart (The Soda Fizz - Jan/Feb 2005)
   
A Tale of Two Machines and A Revolution in Soft Drink Bottling - Bill Lockhart (Bottles & Extras, Spring 2006)
    The Origins and Life of the Export Beer Bottle - Bill Lockhart (Bottles & Extras, May/June 2007)
 
  Rabbit Trails: The Twisted Path to Bottle Identification - Bill Lindsey (Bottles & Extras, May/June 2009)
   
The Finishing Touch: A Primer on Mouth-blown Bottle Finishing Methods - Bill Lindsey (web published on this website 2010)   
 


Bottle Makers and Their Marks
by Dr. Julian Toulouse

Image of Toulouse's Bottle Makers and Their Marks book; click to enlarge.The classic published reference on the subject of maker's markings, as noted above, is the aptly named Bottle Makers and Their Marks by Dr. Julian Toulouse.  Published in 1971, this book is a good source of information on bottle makers marks and the history of the companies that produced them.  To quote from David Whitten's website - "(Toulouse's)...book is the best reference work ever published on glass manufacturers' marks on bottles, but it does contain many errors which have been discovered...since it was first published."

A plethora of new information has been uncovered and older inaccurate information refined since the publishing of the book, most of which is now or soon to be available on this website as noted above.  Regardless of that, Dr. Toulouse's book may still be a useful "quick" reference source for maker's mark information, especially the modern (1971) world markings section found near the back of the book.  When used in hand with the information provided on this page a bottle information seeker has powerful tools in their quest to find bottle dating "truth."  This book is currently being reprinted by Blackburn Press; check the Historic Bottle Related Links page under Toulouse (1971) for a link to this website and the reprint.  It is also widely available used on the various internet used book websites (e.g., Amazon, ABE, etc.)
 


Glass/Bottle Makers catalogs

And finally, one of the more useful tools for determining what a particular bottle shape or type was likely used for are period bottle/glass makers illustrated catalogs.  This website provides complete scanned copies (jpegs) of several never before re-printed bottle makers catalogs covering a wide array of bottle types.  Click on the following links to access these catalogs:

1906 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog
1916-1917 Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. catalog
1920 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog
1926 Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalog

1933-1935 Owens-Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog


1869 Whitney Glass Works token; click to enlarge.

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6/5/2021


This website created and managed by:
Bill Lindsey
Bureau of Land Management (retired) -
Klamath Falls, Oregon
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Copyright 2021 Bill Lindsey.  All rights reserved. Viewers are encouraged, for personal or classroom use, to download limited copies of posted material.  No material may be copied for commercial purposes. Author reserves the right to update this information as appropriate.