Historic Bottle Website "Map"

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The following is a listing or "map" of all the main subject pages and connected sub-pages found within this Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website.  The main subject pages are in bold capital letters and the sub-pages are listed underneath the related main page title in smaller, non-bold lettering.  (Recent significant updates, additions and revisions to the site are noted further down the page.)


DATING PAGE (including beginning of Bottle Dating Key)
    Bottle Dating Key - Mouth-blown bottles
    Bottle Dating Key - Machine-made bottles
    Dating Examples

    Liquor/Spirits Bottles
    Wine & Champagne Bottles
    Beer & Ale Bottles
    Soda & Mineral Water Bottles
    Medicinal/Chemical/Druggist Bottles
    Food Bottles & Canning Jars
    Household Bottles (non-food related)
    Miscellaneous & Foreign Bottles
    Labeled Bottles
    Illinois Glass Co. 1906 bottle catalog
    Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Co. 1916-17 catalog
    Illinois Glass Co. 1920 bottle catalog
    Illinois Glass Co. 1926 bottle catalog
    Owens-Illinois Glass Co. 1933 bottle catalog

    Glassmakers Marks




   Part II: Types or Styles of Finishes - Page 1
   Part II: Types or Styles of Finishes - Page 2
   Part II: Types or Styles of Finishes - Page 3
   Part III: Types of Bottle Closures

   Pontil Marks or Scars


    Bottle Morphology



    Historic Bottle Website "Map" (this page)

ABOUT THIS SITE - Caveats, Acknowledgements & Miscellaneous PAGE

   Metric Conversion Table



Schulz, Peter D., Rebecca Allen, Bill Lindsey, and Jeanette K. Schulz, Editors.  2016.  Baffle Marks and Pontil Scars: A Reader on Historic Bottle Identification.  Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication Series No. 12, Germantown, MD. 

This huge (555 pages), recently released work is one of the best "bottle books" there is for helping with the complicated subject of bottle identification.  This book includes - for the first time in print - a summary of this websites (Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website) bottle dating key as a chapter entitled "Summary Guide to Dating Bottles" by this author (pages 33 to 49).  It also includes "Bottle Dating Worksheets" (pages 51 to 55) by Rebecca Allen and this author to assist in the systematic dating of an historic bottle based on the information in that dating key as well as other information on the website. 

In part, this book fulfills this authors long time desire to have a hard copy "field guide" version of this website for use by archaeologists (and others) by having at least the dating portions available in printed form to take to the field.  Beyond that the book includes more information about historic bottle identification (typology), bottle production, and more than can be summarized here. 

The book is available at www.lulu.com - search for "Baffle Marks and Pontil Scars."  The book is available softbound with either black and white or full color images.  It is also available as a downloadable PDF file. 

All proceeds from sale of this book go directly to benefit the work of the Society for Historical Archaeology!

Recent updates, additions and revisions to this website


Currently, and ongoing for many years to come, the Bottle Research Group is using this Historic Bottle Website to exclusively publish new makers markings articles as well as revisions of previously published ones.  This is all directed towards the eventual completion of...


See the following page for a complete list of and links to these articles:
Bottle & Glass Makers Markings
(They are also on the Reference Sources/Bibliography page.)

Several significant Bottle Research Group (BRG) publications are now also available via this website:

Makers Markings Logo Tables - A major milestone in assisting with the dating of historic bottles is the completion of the "Makers Markings Logo Tables" by the BRG.  This alphabetical listing of specific embossed bottle/glass makers markings includes the marks used by various bottle/glass making companies in the United States and Canada as well as some in England and Mexico.  The actual makers marking "logos" are listed along with the name of the company that used the marking, the date range for the use of that marking, and the makers marking article(s) that cover that particular marking and maker.  These tables taken as a whole constitute essentially a "quick reference" dating guide to the makers markings found on historic bottles!

Other recent articles of interest:

Tintype of a man and his Drake's Plantation Bitters - ca. 1865-1875.Drakes Plantation Bitters from the 1870s; click to enlarge.Lockhart, Bill and Russ Hoenig.  2015.  A Bewildering Array of Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Logos and Codes.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published March 2015.  This is an important and substantive update to the now long-in-the-tooth article (Lockhart 2004d) on the Owens-Illinois Glass Company and its markers markings co-authored with Russ Hoenig, a now retired senior engineer for the Owens-Illinois Glass Co This article is available at the following link:  Updated Owens-Illinois Glass Company article.

Lockhart, Bill, Tod von Mechow, Beau Schriever, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014.  William Painter's Baltimore Loop Seal. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2014.  This article is web published here exclusively for users!  It is about this late 19th century (but used into the 1910s) closure type used for beer and soda bottling and invented by William Painter, who went on to much bigger fame as the originator of the crown cap closure and finish.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BaltimoreLoopSealarticle.pdf

The following articles are on very commonly encountered bottles - Pitcher's/Fletcher's Castoria, Bromo-Seltzer's, Vaseline, California Fig Syrup, and Phillips Milk of Magnesia - which are useful to archaeologists (and others) due to that ubiquity in that the many different varieties of bottles used for the products can be reliably dated (within ranges).  This potentially allows for the dating of other historic bottles and items found within the same context.

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Carol Serr, and Bill Lindsey with contributions by Joe Widman.  2014.  Pitcher's and Fletcher's Castoria Bottles - An Uncommon Study of Common Bottles.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2014.  Article on the fascinating history, bottles and (some) makers markings of this well know product (Castoria) that is still in production (Fletcher's Castoria) today. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CastoriaHistory.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever, and Carol Serr with contributions by David Whitten.  2014.  Bromo-Seltzer in the Cobalt Blue Bottles.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published December 2014.  Another exclusive article published here only; this one on the fascinating history and bottles of another well know product (Bromo-Seltzer) that is still in production today. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Bromo-Seltzer.pdf 

Lockhart, Bill.  2015.  A Tour Through Time in Vaseline Jars.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published August 2015.  Another exclusive article published here only; this one on the fascinating history and bottles of yet another well know product (Vaseline) that is still in production today. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/Vaseline2015.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and Beau Schriever.  2018.  California Fig Syrup: The Company and its Bottles.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2018.  Another exclusive article published here only; this one on the fascinating history and bottles of another well know product (California Fig Syrup) that is still in production today. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/CaliforniaFigSyrup.pdf 

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever and Carol Serr.  2018.  The Bottles of Phillips Milk of Magnesia.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2018.  Another exclusive article published here only; this one on the fascinating history and bottles of another well know product (Phillips Milk of Magnesia) that is still in production today. This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkOfMagnesia.pdf  

...possibly more to come in the future.

Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever, and Carol Serr.  2012.  New Insights from the Bottles Excavated at the Fort Riley Hospital Privy. Privately published by Bill Lockhart & the Bottle Research Group.  This well illustrated work highlights the recent reanalysis of hundreds of bottles and bottle fragments systematically excavated in 1984 from a large privy at Fort Riley, KS. used from the late 1850s into the 1890s.  The reanalysis resulted in the identification of several previously non-attributed makers markings as well as provided a significant amount of information to affirm and refine many of the concepts and dating guidelines found on this site.  This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a free, downloadable .pdf file which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost!  The file is available at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/FortRileyReport2012.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Pete Schulz and Al Morin2017.  Milk Bottle Seals - The Other Manufacturer's Marks. Privately e-published by Bill Lockhart.  "Milk bottle seals" were an embossed designation on milk bottles during the first half of the 20th century which were required by several states as affirmation or guarantee of a standardized measure for the contents.   They are useful for the dating of milk bottles, especially in hand with the glass makers markings.  This fully illustrated e-book is now available ONLY ON THIS WEBSITE as a series of copyrighted (2017) pdf files which may be printed out to make your own book for no cost...thanks Bill!

        Cover, Table of Contents & Preface: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsPreface.pdf
        Chapter 1: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter1.pdf
Chapter 2: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter2.pdf
Chapter 3: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter3.pdf
Chapter 4: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter4.pdf
Chapter 5: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter5.pdf
Chapter 6: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/MilkBottleSealsChapter6.pdf


Another significant addition to this website, which will be ongoing for some time, is the inclusion of a series of articles primarily authored by Bill Lockhart on the early bottle making machines from the very late 1800s to the first couple decades of the 20th century.  These are highly informative, interesting and well illustrated articles on the early days of bottle making automation!

Bernas, Barry.  2011.  The Evolution of Jar Machine. (Originally privately published as part of the 2011 Fruit Jar Annual.)  This article is being made available here compliments of the author and is a fascinating history of the late 19th century evolution of wide mouth, press-and-blow jar making technology and machines.  Click on the following link to access this article:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/evolutionjarmachineBernas.pdf

Lockhart, Bill.  2014.  Frank O'Neill and the O'Neill Glass Machines. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published February 2014.  Another great article web published here exclusively! This article is about some significant late 19th to early 20th century, press-and-blow, semi and fully automatic machines that were eventually able to make narrow neck bottles as well as wide mouth bottles and jars.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ONeillmachines.pdf

Lockhart, Bill and Barry Bernas.  2014.  Turning Blue: Charles Blue and the Early Jar Machines.  In the "Guide to Collecting Fruit Jars: Fruit Jar Annual 2014" by Jerry McCann , pp. 19-47.  Privately published.  As noted in the articles introduction:  Charles Edwin Blue created the first really successful jar and wide-mouth bottle machine. Between 1894 and 1912, Blue patented ten such machines, corresponding to the rise of the Atlas Glass Co. from 1896 to 1902. This study examines the earliest machines made by Blue and others the manufacturing characteristics they left on jars, and ramifications applied to identifying early jars made by the Atlas Glass Co.  This article is available on this website at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/TheBLueMachine.pdf

Lockhart, Bill, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr.  2014.  The Ashley Semiautomatic Bottle Machine.  Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published June 2014.  Yet another great article web published here exclusively! This article is about what was most likely the first narrow mouth, press-and-blow, bottle producing machines originating during the very late 19th to early 20th centuries.  These were nicknamed the "Johnny Bull" machines.  This article is available at this link:  http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AshleyMachines.pdf

...more to come in the future!

Suggested references: 

-Noted soda bottle researcher Ron Fowler recently completed a website that includes a searchable database of 20,000 different embossed Hutchinson soda bottles that he has cataloged.  It is available a this link:  http://www.hutchbook.com  Although still a bit of a work in progress (primarily the inclusion of bottle images though over 18,000 are loaded to date!) this website is already a marvelous resource for those trying to identify soda bottles and fragments as well as so much more.

-In late 2011, a truly monumental work of note was published for those interested in historic bottles.  Published by the Illinois State Archaeological Survey it is entitled Bottled in Illinois - Embossed Bottles and Bottled Products of Early Illinois Merchants from Chicago to Cairo 1840-1880.  Click Bottled in Illinois to read more about this book and for how to acquire it.

-The following recent books are useful references on a class of largely English made bottles used throughout their sphere of influence: 

Bown, Tom A. and Chriss Addams.  2015.  Glass and Pottery containers of the Royal Navy and British Military: Historic and Archaeological Finds from the 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries.  First Choice Books, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.  This is an excellent book on an amazingly wide array of interesting bottles (and ceramic) containers made for and used by the Royal Navy and British Military.  Has great information on the "Broad Arrow" (aka "Admiralty Arrow") marking found on most of these containers.  These bottles are found in many places in the world, though in particular the Commonwealth countries like Canada, New Zealand, Australia, India and of course the mother country Great Britain.  The authors may be contacted via www.coffinisland.ca  Copies of this book may be acquired through Limebay Books, Victoria, B.C. by contacting them at this email - limebay@shaw.ca

Burton, David with research by Christopher Mortimer.  2015.  Antique Sealed Bottles - 1640-1900 - and the families who owned them.  Antique Collectors Club Ltd., Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.  This a very recent, incredibly comprehensive and massive (3 volumes, 1711 pages, and about 20 pounds!) work on the sealed bottles of the world, which were primarily the products of English, Continental and American glass makers.  Thousands of high quality color images and a wealth of historical information that is almost unbelievable in scope.  Highly recommended for anyone interested in the legend, lore and history of sealed bottles...and anyone interested in a work on historic bottles that stands head and shoulders above the rest.  This work is obviously the authors life work (Mortimer died in 2008).

Group of historic bottles dating between 1840 and 1930.

To do a word/phrase or image search of this website one must use the following Google search link:  Search the SHA/BLM Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website


This website created and managed by:
Bill Lindsey
Bureau of Land Management (retired) -
Klamath Falls, Oregon
Questions?  See FAQ #21.

Copyright 2018 Bill Lindsey.  All rights reserved. Viewers are encouraged, for personal or classroom use, to download limited copies of posted material.  No material may be copied for commercial purposes. Author reserves the right to update this information as appropriate.