Historic Bottle Website "Map"
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The following is a listing or "map" of all the main subject pages and connected sub-pages found within this Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website. The main subject pages are in bold capital letters and the sub-pages are listed underneath the related main page title in smaller, non-bold lettering. (Recent significant updates, additions and revisions to the site are noted further down the page.)
DATING PAGE (including beginning of Bottle Dating Key)
TYPING/DIAGNOSTIC SHAPES PAGE
BOTTLE BODY CHARACTERISTICS & MOLD SEAMS PAGE
BOTTLE FINISHES & CLOSURES PAGE -
BOTTLE FRAGMENT IDENTIFICATION PAGE
BOTTLE GLOSSARY PAGE
REFERENCE SOURCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE
HISTORIC BOTTLE RELATED LINKS PAGE
QUESTIONS (FAQ'S) PAGE
Historic Bottle Website Authors Note 5/21/2022: With the completion of the basic versions of the complex of Typology/Typing pages in 2019 this website is considered complete. Corrections to and elaboration of the existing information as well as additional historic bottle examples, pertinent manufacturing and other related information will be added/expanded on the various typology pages as well as the other subject pages. Also ongoing in the future will be revisions of the completed Makers Markings articles - revisions which began in 2021 by the primary author of that section of this site (Bill Lockhart).
NEW SHA HISTORIC BOTTLE IDENTIFICATION BOOK!
Schulz, Peter D., Rebecca Allen, Bill Lindsey, and Jeanette K. Schulz, Editors. 2016. Baffle Marks and Pontil Scars: A Reader on Historic Bottle Identification. Society for Historical Archaeology, Special Publication Series No. 12, Germantown, MD.
This huge (555 pages), recently released work is one of the best "bottle books" there is for helping with the complicated subject of bottle dating & identification. This book includes - for the first time in print - a summary of this websites (Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website) bottle dating key as a chapter entitled "Summary Guide to Dating Bottles" by this author (p. 33 to 49). It also includes "Bottle Dating Worksheets" (p. 51 to 55) by Dr. Rebecca Allen and this author to assist in the systematic dating of an historic bottle based on the information in that dating key as well as other information on the website.
In part, the book fulfills this authors long time desire to have a hard copy "field guide" version of this website for use by archaeologists (and others) by having at least the dating portions available in printed form to take to the field. Beyond that the book includes more information about historic bottle identification (typology), bottle production, and more than can be summarized here.
The book is available at www.lulu.com at the following link: Baffle Marks and Pontil Scars. It is available softbound with either black & white or color images. It is also available as a downloadable PDF file.
All proceeds from sale of this book go
directly to benefit the work of the
ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT INFORMATION
Makers Markings Logo Tables
As a part of the above noted "Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers" project is the completion of the "Makers Markings Logo Tables" by the BRG - a major milestone in assisting with the dating of historic bottles. This alphabetical listing of specific embossed bottle/glass containers makers markings includes the marks used by various bottle/glass making companies in the United States and Canada as well as some in England and Mexico. The actual makers marking "logos" are listed along with the name of the company that used the marking, the date range for the use of that marking, and the makers marking article(s) that cover that particular marking and maker. These tables taken as a whole constitute essentially a "quick reference" dating guide to the makers markings found on historic bottles!
A comprehensive history & markings of the Owens-Illinois Glass Company
Questions pertaining to the products of the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. outnumber many fold the questions this websites' author receives about any other particular glass/bottle maker. The previous article(s) on the company posted on this website have also received significantly more user downloads than any other makers marking article. (Image to the right of an O-I produced beer bottle base.)
Given that there is much new information gleaned since the 2015 article (Lockhart & Hoenig 2015), Bill Lockhart recently combined all of the currently known information on the complicated history of the company into two separate articles - Part 1 which is the overall history of the company and various plants and, Part 2 which is an explanation of the various makers markings, date and plant codes and related features f0und on their products. Both articles follow and are part of the above noted "Encyclopedia of Manufacturers Marks on Glass Containers":
Lockhart, Bill, Russ Hoenig, Beau Schriever, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr. 2018t. Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Part 1 - History. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2018. This is an in-depth overview of the history of this important 20th and still currently operating company, including the myriad of plants the company used and still use. This article is available at the following link: Owens-Illinois Glass Company Part 1 - History.
Lockhart, Bill and Russ Hoenig. 2018u. Owens-Illinois Glass Company Part 2 - The Bewildering Array of Owens-Illinois Glass Co. Logos and Codes. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published October 2018. (Note: Russ Hoenig is a now retired senior engineer of the Owens-Illinois Glass Co. and a rich source of information. Thanks Russ!) This is an important and substantive update that goes further in explaining the array of markings used by the company on its products over the past 90 years. This article is available at the following link: Owens-Illinois Glass Company Part 2 - Logos & Codes.
Lockhart, Bill and Bob Brown (with contributions by Chris Weide and Russ Hoenig). 2019. The Glamorous Applied Color Labels. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published September 2019. A comprehensive article on the history, processes and use of ACL labeling beginning in the early 1930s. This article is available on this site at: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ACLArticle2019.pdf
Schulz, Peter, Bill Lockhart, Carol Serr, Bill Lindsey and Beau Schriever. 2019b. A History of Non-Returnable Beer Bottles. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published February 2019. Another exclusive article published here only; this one an in-depth and fascinating history of non-returnable beer bottles. Though not an era that has completely ended, the heyday of no-deposit, no-return bottles was primarily from the 1930s to 1970s. This article covers styles, dating, and much more about this category of bottles which are ubiquitous on 20th century historic sites. This article is available at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/NRBeers.pdf
Lockhart, Bill, Tod von Mechow, Beau Schriever, David Whitten, Bill Lindsey and Carol Serr. 2014. William Painter's Baltimore Loop Seal. Historic Glass Bottle Identification & Information Website, E-published January 2014. This article is web published here exclusively for users! It is about this late 19th century (but used into the 1910s) closure type used for beer and soda bottling and invented by William Painter, who went on to much bigger fame as the originator of the crown cap closure and finish. This article is available at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BaltimoreLoopSealarticle.pdf
Lockhart, Bill, Bill Lindsey, Beau Schriever, and Carol Serr. 2012. New Insights from the Bottles Excavated at the Fort Riley Hospital Privy. Privately published by Bill Lockhart & the Bottle Research Group. This well illustrated work highlights the recent reanalysis of hundreds of bottles and bottle fragments systematically excavated in 1984 from a large privy at Fort Riley, KS. used from the late 1850s into the 1890s. The reanalysis resulted in the identification of several previously non-attributed makers markings as well as provided a significant amount of information to affirm and refine many of the concepts and dating guidelines found on this site. This copyrighted work is available for sale as a softbound book via www.Lulu.com (search using "Bill Lockhart") or as a free, downloadable .pdf file which may be saved or printed out to make your own book for no cost! The file is available at this link: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/FortRileyReport2012.pdf
-A recently created website on the bottles of the Michigan's Upper Peninsula entitled "Copper Country Bottles" is available at the following link: https://coppercountrybottles.com/ To quote from the website homepage - "This site catalogs old bottles of the Copper Country, a historic copper mining region, settled in the 1840s and encompassed by Keweenaw, Houghton, Ontonagon, and Baraga counties in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Our focus is on the local bottles made by the traditional method of mouth-blowing glass into a mold and hand finishing the top. Such Copper Country bottles date from the 1860s to 1910s. We hope this site can facilitate the collecting and studying of old bottles as artifacts of local history." This website was created by Jason Oyadomari and Richard Dana and is very well done. It is full of well researched information relative to the dating of bottles which may have broader application outside the noted area of coverage.
-Noted soda bottle researcher Ron Fowler recently completed a website that includes a searchable database of over 21,000 (!) different embossed Hutchinson soda bottles that he has cataloged, including images of thousands of them. It is available a this link: http://www.hutchbook.com/default.html This website is a marvelous resource for those trying to identify soda bottles and fragments as well as so much more.
The following recently published books are useful references on some interesting historic bottle "niches" that include American, English and/or Continental European bottles made from the 17th century into the 20th. All are exceptional books on their field of study and worthy of addition to ones historic bottle library:
Farnsworth, Kenneth B. and John A. Walthall. 2011. Bottled in Illinois - Embossed Bottles and Bottled Products of Early Illinois Merchants from Chicago to Cairo 1840-1880. Illinois State Archaeological Survey, Prairie Research Institute, Studies in Archaeology No. 6, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.
This is a truly monumental work on historic bottles dealing with 19th century Illinois bottles made during the period noted by the title. It certainly ranks as one of a handful of the most well done books on bottles and their history ever published in the U.S. Click Bottled in Illinois to read more about the book and where to acquire it.
Burton, David with research by Christopher Mortimer. 2015. Antique Sealed Bottles - 1640-1900 - and the families who owned them. Antique Collectors Club Ltd., Woodbridge, Suffolk, England.
This a recent, incredibly comprehensive and massive (3 volumes, 1711 pages, and about 20 pounds!) work on the sealed bottles of the world, which were primarily the products of English, Continental and some American glass makers. Thousands of high quality color images and a wealth of historical information that is almost unbelievable in scope. Highly recommended for anyone interested in the legend, lore and history of sealed bottles...and anyone interested in a work on historic bottles that stands head and shoulders above the rest. It is also a very useful work on the evolution of bottle shapes and styles as it covers many hundreds of sealed bottles with dates from the mid-17th century through the 19th century. This work is obviously the authors life work (Mortimer died in 2008).
Jones, David. 2017. Saving the Fizz - The Evolution of Patented Bottle Closures Since the Humble Cork. Ligare Pty. Ltd., Riverwood, NSW, Australia.
This is a truly monumental work (616 pages) by the late Mr. Jones which is highly recommended for those interested in the closures bottles used; closures (and related finishes) which can be quite useful in dating historic bottles in the US, Australia as well as much of the world. Profusely illustrated (thousands of images and illustrations) covering patented closures - and the finishes that accepted them - from the early 19th century through much of the 20th. As the name implies, it concentrates somewhat on closures for soda/mineral water bottles, but covers all types. This book is still available (for about $200 US shipped) from Wayne Harris in Traralgon, Victoria, Australia. His email is firstname.lastname@example.org or by visiting the following website - www.savingthefizz.com
One more recently published book of some interest is the following on the products of the J. C. Ayer & Co.:
Hoyt, Cliff & Linda. 2018. A Century of Cures - Dr. J. C. Ayer & Co. Lowell, Mass. U.S.A. Lowell Historical Society, P.O. Box 1826, Lowell, MA. 01853. A monumental, almost 500 page work on everything about this dominant patent medicine producer which spanned a century from the 1840s to 1940s. History, full color illustrations of bottles, advertising, and in particular dates on the plethora of different bottles used by Ayers during its long history. This is a very worthwhile book to have in my opinion. This book is available from the authors for $50 plus postage via their website: www.cliffhoyt.com
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