The theme for SHA’s 2013 conference (‘Globalization, immigration, transformation’) not only references the location of the meeting away from North America, its international outlook, and the individual character and modern history of Leicester, but also acknowledges the transformation of historical archaeology into a global discipline. The formal call for sessions and papers will soon be available on the SHA website, in the newsletter, and on this blog. In the meantime, here’s a short history of Leicester.
The City of Leicester traces its history back to an Iron Age village on the banks of the River Soar, which subsequently became a Roman military centre. When the military frontier was pushed further to the north and west, Leicester was tranformed into the Roman civilian town of Ratae Coritanorum. The presence of the remains of Roman Leicester have shaped the urban development of the modern city, and have been the subject of excavations carried out by University of Leicester Archaeological Services; artefacts and mosaics from Leicester’s Roman and later periods are on display in the Jewry Wall Museum. The above-ground remains of Roman Leicester include the thirty-foot tall Jewry Walland portions of the Roman Baths, while the layout of the Roman and medieval town is still reflected in the modern city’s street plan.
Between the ninth and eleventh centuries, Leicester formed part of the Danelaw, an area subject to Danish law, which also included the Kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, and the boroughs of Nottingham, Derby, Stamford and Lincoln. A number of later medieval buildings survive in Leicester, including several early churches, a Norman motte, the twelfth-century castle hall, fifteenth-century timber-framed Guildhall, portions of a fifteenth-century Abbey and the sixteenth-century Magazine Gateway. The area around the castle and the Newarke is home Leicester’s other seat of learning, De Montfort University.
In the post-medieval period, the heart of Leicester shifted from its medieval centre to a new focus on the city’s market, ensuring both the survival of portions of the medieval core and of planned eighteenth-century and later developments further to the south and east. Water power from the River Soar and transport changed the face of Leicester in the nineteenth century, as the town became a centre for the hosiery industry, and numerous mills and warehouses reflecting Leicester’s industrial heritage survive in the city; as industry in the city has declined, or moved into different areas of production, many of these mills and warehouses have been converted to offices and apartments. During the twentieth century, Leicester became a destination for emigrants initially from South Asia and East Africa (many of the latter fleeing Idi Amin’s oppressive regime in Uganda), and today from nearly every corner of the globe. Leicester is particularly famed for hosting the largest Diwali (Hindu New Year) celebrations anywhere outside of India. Leicester’s rich cultural tapestry is exemplified by a wide range of dining establishments throughout the city offering cuisines from around the world, and reflected in the University of Leicester’s ongoing ‘Mapping Faith and Place‘ project, which sets out to explore the ways in which the traditions and values surrounding places of worship are perceived and engaged in 21st-century Leicester. [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons [images 1 and 2]
This week’s Friday Links brings you a new feature: a photo of the week! This week’s photo is of archaeologist Adam Fracchia showing of a ceramic fragment, while a future archaeologist works in a unit. The excavations were completed this summer in Baltimore, a co-project between Baltimore Heritage and the National Parks Service. Also, please let us know what additional links or blogs you have in the comments so that we can start following you, and share your content with others!
DePaul students are excavating a house that was a stop on the Underground Railroad.
Jamestowne Rediscovery was featured on C-SPAN! Watch the video here.
Conferences and Calls
the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training is offering a three day summit on 3D digital documentation for the preservation of cultural heritage.
At American Antiquarian, you can view their Staffordshire Pottery of John Ridgway collection.
The blogosphere was full of a number of posts recapping the Baltimore conference:
- At This Spatial Life, Edward Gonzalez-Tennant blogs about his experience in Baltimore, particularly the participation of his colleagues and students form Monmouth University.
- Mount Vernon’s Mystery Midden blog discusses their session about George Washington and archaeology.
- FPAN North Central writes about their time at SHA 2012 on their blog Shovel Bytes.
Did you write a post about your time at SHA? Any other headlines that we missed? Share them in the comments!
Did you know that SHA has a clearinghouse for syllabi and teaching modules?
Have you ever searched the web for ideas for your new classes? Look no further. The Society for Historical Archaeology’s Academic and Professional Training Committee has created an online clearinghouse for syllabi and teaching modules dealing with topics relevant to the teaching of historical archaeology. There are syllabi for courses on historical archaeology, African diaspora/African American Archaeology, Public Archaeology, Regional Surveys, and Special Topics. Check them out for new ideas and projects for your historical archaeology classes.
The website includes links to dozens of syllabi on general courses in historical archaeology as well as courses on specific topics that make up the discipline’s many interests.
Also, if you have great teaching ideas that you would like to share with your colleagues, please send copies of your syllabi or teaching modules to Jodi Barnes (email@example.com) or Chris Matthews (firstname.lastname@example.org)
In November of 2011, I went to Boston University to present at the “Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory” conference (CHAT). This is an annual conference that has some history in the United Kingdom (in fact, next year will be the 10th anniversary meeting at York) but the idea of “Contemporary Archaeology” is largely unknown on this side of the Atlantic. What I found was a diversity of approaches and practices, and little discussion about integrating with the North American condition of archaeology. This left me pondering the idea of a Contemporary Archaeology in North America, and what might be done to further it.
The conference spanned the 11-13th of November, and took place at BU’s College of Arts and Sciences building. The conference was organized around thematic sessions, with two such sessions running concurrently throughout the weekend. I had organized a session on the archaeology of property. As both a participant and a spectator, I can say that the conference was run extremely efficiently and effectively. Professor Mary Beaudry and grad students Travis Parno, Brent Fortenberry, Alexander Keim, Diana Gallagher, and the rest of the BU Archaeology Department Grad student organizing committee are to be strongly commended for organizing, managing, and implementing such a stellar and smoothly run conference. Kudos to all of you!
Most papers I saw would not have been out of place at the SHAs, Historical Archaeology sessions at the SAAs or the AAAs, or the various regional archaeology and anthropology conferences I have attended. Papers focused on the material culture of the last 500+ years of capitalism, European colonialism and differentiation, and responses/resistance to that from within and without. The earliest time period I saw discussed was in a paper by Ronald Salzer, focusing on a 15th century pocket Sundial found in Austria. More recent (but still perhaps traditional) papers focused on 19th century materialities–for example, Alexander Keim’s work on space and slums in 19th century Boston, or Megan Edwards and Rebecca Graff’s paper on meat cuts and meat packing at the 1893 Chicago world’s fair.
There were two groups of papers that I think would stand outside of what most North American archaeologists consider to be Historical Archaeology. The first were papers that explicitly addressed present social or political conditions by mobilizing archaeologically recovered material. For example, Joanna Behrens paper on the 19th century “Great Trek” in South Africa problematized modern historiographic and nationalist notions about the place of this event in South African memory. In my session, Julie Woods and Rae Gould discussed Indigenous object and structures and role of property categories in contemporary Indigenous politics in North America.The other group were papers that utilized traditional archaeological methods, but on sites from the present, or the very recent past. This is perhaps closer to “Contemporary Archaeology” in the UK. Adrian Myers paper on WWII internment camps in Manitoba was on the fence of the standard period of 50 years for site significance, but demonstrated the utility of such approaches in recasting WWII as a historical and social event. Courtney Singleton’s paper on the archaeology of homelessness in Indianapolis combined a commitment to political advocacy with studies of materiality of homeless camps, an approach similar to others practiced in the UK.There was no single geographical theme–I saw papers from all continents excluding Antarctica. Theoretically, papers largely utilized Interpretive and Contextual approaches, relating material culture and meaning systems. The theme of the conference, “People and Things in Motion” brought out a lot of papers that focused on material flows, and the agency of objects. Ross Wilson’s paper on object narratives in 18th and 19th century England was a good example–these fictionalized literary accounts of everyday objects (e.g. “The Adventures of a Pincushion”) reveal how objects had the ability to change or mobilize the social statuses of the individuals who acquired them.
All of this left me scratching my head–what is Contemporary Archaeology, as it stands in the US? More importantly, how might such an archaeology integrate with the realities of shrinking research funds, the juggernaut of CRM, and the largely positivist and distant past-focused outlooks of US archaeologists. The plenary sessions left these questions mostly unanswered, focusing instead on outlining theoretical approaches that could be utilized. Shannon Dawdy’s plenary lecture on Friday recast the concept of the “fetish” out of its racialized, politicized, and psychologized origins, and how its various meanings were constituted in different ways within her long-term research in the archaeology of New Orleans. Likewise, the busy plenary discussion on Saturday focused largely on the relationships between art and archaeological practice, the role of theory-building and borrowing in archaeology, and the uneasy flow between the historical and contemporary pasts. I am certainly giving a short shrift to the nuanced, complex, and interesting discussions that took place. I found them compelling, but upon later reflection, I began to wonder whether there would be institutional room for this work. The only long-running and on-going project in the US that could be called “contemporary archaeology” is William Rathje’s Garbage Project. And there have not been any academic positions in this program or others in the US that specifically focus on Contemporary Materiality. Are there any that I don’t know about?
I also imagine that, ten or twenty years ago, folks in the UK and Ireland were raising similar objections to my own. And since then, UK and Irish departments have made significant commitments to contemporary archaeology. As evidenced by CHAT 2011 at BU, the diversity of ideas about Contemporary Archaeology in the US suggests that such an approach is in its infancy over here, with hard distinctions and agreements on terms and practices that come with of making a discipline still a ways off.
To that end, I suspect that visibility is the best policy. I first heard of CHAT in the US when Brent Fortenberry organized a “CHAT at TAG” session in 2009. CHAT’s sponsorship of similar sessions at other national and regional conferences in North America, along with a continued conference on this side of the pond would do much to get us all more comfortable with the idea of a Contemporary Archaeology, and might create more institutional space for such an archaeology to be practiced.
After a long week recuperating from Baltimore, here are a few things to read and watch about historical archaeology that you may have missed!
Two articles appeared in the St. Augustine Record, one about a metal detectorist, the other about a new reality TV Show about digging up back yards. Kathleen Deagan is given an opportunity to respond, and defends the value of archaeology and the difference between finding things and discovering history.
Larry McKee discusses an unnamed Civil War soldier buried in Franklin Tennessee. His analysis suggests the soldier was of mixed Native American and European ancestry.
Barbara Little has built a new wiki for Cultural Heritage Practitioners.
Journals and Books
The new issue of the Journal of Archaeological Science is out.
Florida Public Archaeology’s North Central Blog “ShovelBytes” writes about The steamboat Madison, who lies on the bottom of Troy Spring Run in Troy Spring State Park.
The Dirt on Public Archaeology investigates the pros and cons of the Mock Dig.
See the African American Burial Ground’s photostream on Flickr of the ceramics excavated from their site. Then, follow them on twitter for more information on African American history and archaeology!
Lastly, a video from Project Archaeology highlighting their Archaeology Educator Field School:
Since the SHA was formed in 1967 scholars have acknowledged the complex global relationships between local sites and broader international social, material, and political currents. The truism to “think globally, dig locally” has been repeated many times by historical archaeologists and figures in nearly every textbook definition of the discipline, but for various reasons we have been slow to mount ambitious international projects. Many of those reasons are simply practical realities: for instance, it is often expensive to launch excavations in international contexts; learning the scholarship and culture of a whole other place—even a seemingly similar one—can be exceptionally demanding; and developing a network of local scholars to support archaeology of the recent past—and the last half-millennium is recent in many international contexts—takes significant patience. Yet I write all this from a train platform in York, England, where I have spent much of the past year doing exciting collections research with post-medieval colleagues in the UK. While all the things that make us reluctant to launch international research are true, there are enormous possibilities for scholars who want to conduct ambitious international projects. There are rich bodies of data that colleagues are willing to share with us, and in my experience those colleagues in places like Britain and Europe have been universally interested in sharing their scholarship and data and building projects spanning the Atlantic.
I spent a week in September, 2011 in York working with decorative materials from Hungate, which has a nearly unparalleled ambition to examine two millennia of continuous occupation of a ten-acre site in the heart of York. While York is best-known for its Viking history, and it is in a region with a rich history of Roman archaeology, it has a post-medieval archaeological record that includes 18th century domestic material as well as tenements from the mid- 19th-century into the 1930s. It is those latter materials I looked at in York, since my work looks at tenement life in Indiana, and I am interested in broad international patterns in the construction of poverty and the process of displacing people from “slum” contexts in the 20th century throughout the world. The York Archeological Trust has devoted the same thorough attention to that tenement period as it has given to the Roman, Viking, and medieval material from Hungate, and the record of all those periods is exceptionally rich. Like most of us, they want their research to be useful to scholars outside narrow archaeological specializations and outside Great Britain itself, and the York Archaeological Trust has a long record of running public programs examining the northern British city’s heritage as revealed by extensive archaeological research. They were kind enough to share much of their decorative material culture—figurines, display ceramics, and assorted household goods—to examine what it meant to be impoverished in York and assess how that compares to impoverishment in the US and places like Indianapolis.
Hungate is the single largest excavation ever conducted in York, which has been the scene of relatively continuous occupation for at least two millennia. Today York remains circled by well-preserved perimeter defensive walls, and it has exceptional architectural preservation of astounding sites including Clifford’s Tower, the massive York Minster, and numerous medieval structures that welcome numerous tourists throughout the year. The York Archaeological Trust began excavations in York in 1972 and has excavated sites that reach across several millennia, with particularly rich work on the Viking period that led to the creation of the JORVIK Viking Centre. Working across so many periods demands a vast range of specialists, and the Hungate team includes Romanists, medievalists, and post-medievalists alike who focus on historical research, zooarchaeology, ceramics, assorted small finds, and every other possible specialization.
What should interest many North American historical archaeologists is that the Hungate scholars have found quite a lot of community interest in the post-medieval archaeology on the site, especially the tenement period that is within the memory of many residents. Where the post-medieval period was once something overlying the “real” archaeology, the Hungate team recognized that there are local constituencies and an international scholarly community interested in these most recent material remains. Much of that work has examined how poverty was constructed in 19th and 20th century York, and they hosted a conference in 2009 on the archaeology of poverty that included North American scholars such as Mary Beaudry, Charles Orser, Adrian Praetzellis, Diana Wall, and Rebecca Yamin. That work subsequently was part of an SHA session in 2011 that included Hungate Project Director Peter Connelly and Historical Researcher Jayne Rimmer. In addition to a forthcoming journal collection from the project, the Hungate team plans an ambitious series of technical reports and accessible public scholarship.
Many North American historical archaeologists are interested in the same issues as our Atlantic World, European, Latin American, and Pacific colleagues, and there are increasingly more grants targeting international research and encouraging American graduate students to work with data outside the US. My own University was exceptionally supportive providing seed grants to conduct the work in York as well as trips to work in museums and universities in London, Newcastle, Manchester, and Finland. For those who cannot make it overseas because of cost and all the genuine practical realities, though, there are still enormous possibilities as increasingly more scholarship is digitized and many of our once-distant colleagues are accessible electronically. With the 2013 SHA Conference set for Leicester, we will have the chance to meet many of those British and European colleagues, so start planning ahead and think about extending your work to international settings.
Globalization, immigration, transformation Society for Historical Archaeology Annual Conference 2013 46th Annual Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology January 9-12, 2013 Leicester, Great Britain A major historical archaeology conference based in the heart of England, but looking at the world, its peoples and the changes they created in the recent past. You are warmly invited to Leicester, England for the 46th annual Society for Historical and Underwater Archaeology Conference, January 9–12 2013.
Leicester offers the visitor fantastic shopping, sightseeing and dining opportunities (you should certainly try one of its many Indian restaurants). Leicester’s rich heritage of excellent food and drink is a product of its diverse population. Local foods include Stilton cheese, Melton Mowbray pork pies, and the best samosas this side of India. The Conference reception will be at the wonderful Snibston Discovery Centre, where you can explore 500 years of technological innovation, see a working beam engine and use block-and-tackle to pick up the iconic British Mini automobile with only your own body strength. Trips and tours will include Stratford-upon-Avon and a performance by the Royal Shakespeare Company; Ironbridge, the cradle of the Industrial Revolution; Elizabethan stately homes; a visit to the Royal Dockyard and historic ships at Portsmouth, and many others.
Leicester makes an ideal base for an independent vacation before or after the conference. It is centrally located, only 75 minutes by train from central London and yet within easy reach of the natural beauty of the Charnwood Hills, the Peak district and a host of charming market towns. The conference will be based at the University of Leicester, which consistently features in the UK top 20 and in the top two per cent of world universities. The School of Archaeology and Ancient History is one of the UK’s largest and most highly-rated, and incorporates the Centre for Historical Archaeology, Britain’s only dedicated research center for the discipline.
Delegates will be offered a range of hotel accommodation nearby. There are options for all pockets and tastes from the luxurious Victorian Mercure Hotel to charming local ‘Bed and Breakfasts’. Leicester is a ‘human scale’ city that can easily be explored on foot or using its excellent public transportation. From the conference venue you can stroll down New Walk admiring its eighteenth-century squares and gardens, past the nineteenth-century New Walk Museum to the lively heart of the town; or perhaps visit the busy pubs, bars and restaurants, or see some exciting drama or dance at the new Curve theatre in the Cultural Quarter. Whether you’d rather visit one of the city’s many museums or watch the Leicester Tigers rugby team playing at home, Leicester 2013 will be a memorable conference and an enjoyable visit. Please join us for a pie and a pint next year!
For more information, please contact the SHA 2013 Conference Committee Co-Chairs: Audrey Horning, Queen’s University Belfast (email@example.com) and Sarah Tarlow, University of Leicester (firstname.lastname@example.org). [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons
Every Friday, we provide a series of links, headlines, and announcements about what’s happening in Historical Archaeology over the past week. Please, add your links to the comments below, and we’ll be sure to include them in the future! Also, if you have a blog about historical archaeology, please let us know in the comments! We’d love to help improve your readership by highlighting posts on Friday Links!
- University of Texas – Pan American program CHAPS (Community Historical Archaeology Program with Schools), wins National Endowment the Humanities Grant to further their public engagement with schools and communities. Visit their website to learn more about their program.
- Excavations mitigating the construction of a San Francisco Terminal, conducted by William Self Associates, has unearthed artifacts relating to the Irish and Chinese immigrants from the Gold Rush.
New Books and Journals
- The Materiality of Freedom, edited by Jodi Barnes, examines the archaeology of African American life after slavery.
- The International Journal of Historical Archaeology December 2011 has been released. This is a special collection called “Poverty in Depth: New International Perspectives”, guest edited by Jayne Rimmer, Peter Connelly, Sarah Rees Jones, and John Walker.
Call for Manuscripts
- The brand new Journal of African Diaspora Archaeology and Heritage is looking for manuscripts. The Journal is edited by Chris Fennell.
- Eurotast, a research network studying the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade, has a number of research fellowships for scholars of various skill levels.
On the Blogosphere
- Montpelier has closed their excavations in the South Yard for the winter: see some of the final photos and Matthew Reeves’ description of their finds!
- This Week in Pennsylvania Archaeology highlights the excavations of the 19th century Dyottville Glass manufacturing complex.
- Jamie Brandon highlights his summer excavations at Historic Washington, Arkansas on his blog, Farther Along,
- Terry Brock wrote a post on his personal blog, Dirt, with some helpful tips on how to stay warm during winter excavations.
- Jamestowne Rediscovery provides a behind the scenes look at what goes on in the lab with this video:
Over 2011 there have been significant changes to the SHA Website that are only now seeing the light of day. Perhaps the most significant change will be a complete revamping of the site design to make it more user-friendly by easing navigation and of course make it even more visually appealing. The site design will launch over the next few weeks so be prepared for the change!
New features of the SHA Website are growing everyday, like this Blog initiatied by Terry Brock and the Social Media Subcommittee. Other new features launched in 2011 include:
A new Online Forum where professionals can discuss hot-button topics, artifact identifications, and nearly any other interesting aspect of Historical Archaeology. All you need to do is log into the member’s section of the SHA Website, and then read the instructions provided on the Member’s Homepage in PDF format. Then click on the “Forum” link on the left bar and you are off. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion of African cross marks on material culture moderated by Journal Editor Joe Joseph and President-Elect Charlie Ewen.
The Publications Explorer has also seen some revamping, thanks to the efforts of Joe Joseph, and University of Montana Graduate Student Riley Auge. To help researchers find resources that fit their needs, Riley has coded each article produced by the SHA since 1967 with keywords ranging from Time Period, to Region, to individual subjects. This is a new robust tool to help educators and researchers find just the article(s) they need for classes or projects.
In following posts I will share more information on other facets of the SHA Website that have been added in the last few years, but also provide a glimpse of other changes on the website, such as the preview of our new design above!
I would be remiss without thanking the whole Website team for their efforts in 2011, including Spectral Fusion Designs at the University of Montana, Jono Mogstad the SHA Webmaster, and of course my whole Advisorial Committee. The Website is a sizable beast to wrangle, and all these individuals and many more make my job a whole lot easier.